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Style transfer. Computer rendering of a photograph in the style of five well-known paintings: The Shipwreck of the Minotaur by J.M.W. Turner, 1805; The Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh, 1889; Der Schrei by Edvard Munch, 1893; Femme nue assise by Pablo Picasso, 1910; and Composition VII by Wassily Kandinsky, 1913. From Gatys et al 2015: 5.

Styles and movements in visual art

This page brings together art styles and movements from the 1860s to the present day. In addition to the isms of modern art, the list includes movements that are usually treated as secondary to the visual art canon, such as Lettrism, Situationism, Sound art, Expanded cinema, Neoism, or Software art, and does not leave out those best represented by works made by others than Western white males either.


Art historians have debated the limits and biases of style analysis and classification for decades,[1] yet style remains "inseparable from working concepts of art and its history".[2] Its relevance is being reaffirmed in an unexpected way, as a database column in an ever-growing number of art collections. Major art museums have adopted it as an organising element of their online catalogues.[3]

Online databases are often presented as neutral resources, with no acknowledgment of editorial work, and instead derive their legitimacy from the reputation of the institution.[4] While they increasingly influence how we (and machines) see and learn about art, their protocols are rarely discussed. In contrast to the tradition of scholarly argumentation, the context in the database is given by the way its data are interconnected, where each item is defined by the set of its relations to other items. Rather than notions supporting an argument, styles and movements become vectors along which an online collection is designed to be viewed, queried, and referenced. This allows databases to position artworks as belonging to particular styles and movements simply by designating a relation.[5] Although art collection databases are heirs to the art historical tradition, they adapt art to the logic of the relational database - the logic of organising data into rows and columns of items that point to each other. The same can be said of other attributes of artworks, pre-formatted by the database as lists of authors, materials, years of production, and so on.

To further explore this strand of the datafication of art history, this page juxtaposes styles and movements as represented in the online collections of art museums. To achieve greater contrast, it adds definitions from dictionaries and glossaries in several languages, as well as selected writings by artists, critics and historians, and recent retrospective exhibitions that challenge the origin myths of this or that style or movement. As a result, the page brings together some 350 art styles and movements from the 1860s to the present day, as they have come to us through these four paths. In addition to the isms of modern art, the list includes movements that are usually treated as secondary to the visual art canon, such as Lettrism, Situationism, Sound art, Expanded cinema, Neoism, or Software art, and does not leave out those best represented by works made by others than Western white males either.[6]

Entries are structured in the following way:

The term under which a given style, movement, ism or school came to be established. Preferably in its original language with an English equivalent and optionally frequent synonymous terms. Terms should not be understood as mutually exclusive: body art does not exclude performance art, performance art does not exclude conceptual art, process art does not exclude postminimalism. Where the link is active it leads to a Monoskop page with more detailed information including bibliographies; among the most extensive at the moment are Cubism, Constructivism, Conceptual art, Expanded cinema, Neoism and Sound art.
Major events. Mostly exhibitions, but also group formations, conferences, etc. In most cases, titles are kept in their original languages (English equivalents are chosen for events better known as such today). Links point to event websites and online versions of catalogues.
Major texts. These include manifestos, key essays, magazines, but also later art-historical analyses. Links point to their online versions, some in translation.
Associated artists. Only those participating during the formative years of a given phenomenon are included (i.e. "first" and "second generations"). Many artist names are hyperlinked; as there is not more than one link per artist/group in an entry, the order of preference is as follows: (1) Monoskop wiki page, (2) official home page/estate, (3) major collection with online presence, (4) latest retrospective exhibition with online companion/catalogue. Country shortcuts following names indicate countries where artists were active during periods for which they are associated with a given phenomenon.
Media. "Design" includes the broad area of decorative arts and crafts. If there were notable works created also in architecture, it is indicated, however architects, their works and architectural movements per se are not included in the table (history of 20th-century architecture is treated on a separate page).
Key references.
Works are selected to illustrate the diversity of forms, materials, subject matter, and techniques associated with a term. Size and materials are included and entry in an online catalogue of the collection a work is part of is linked where available. Please note that photo reproductions come from a multitude of collections and parameters under which they were produced vary greatly (no post-processing on our side was done).
Collections. Only those with a database entry for a given term in their online catalogues are included.
Dictionary and glossary entries from sources in multiple languages published in the last twenty years and at least partly freely available online. Bibliographic citations for the abbreviations are listed at the bottom.

An ism, style, movement or school is usually established through a number of players: artists, gallerists, collectors, critics and historians, as well as various institutional mechanisms, professional protocols and personal interests. Different phenomena can serve as triggers--aesthetic and/or sociopolitical visions or their (pejorative) criticism, financial speculation or its rejection--and it may be first recognised decades after its foundational works were made. These issues are documented and analysed in publications, some of which are listed in the column Key texts. Those writings, along with recent large-scale reexaminations informed the selection of formative works and artists for respective entries on this page.[7]

The page puts forward the kind of visual art the historian of modernism wishes to see. Regardless, it does not intend to list the most significant artworks nor the most significant artists of the past 150 years. Admitting a certain power of the concepts of style and movement even today, this page can be seen as an entry point and contextual resource for visual art which is not be based primarily on technique, subject matter, material or economic value of works nor on identity of their authors or owners.

First published on 23 May 2016.


Although the default is linear chronology, this is only one way to view the list: the four columns can be sorted, and you can click on any image to switch to visual mode.

Term Key events
Selected works
Dictionaries *
Key texts Key artists Media Ref
Impressionism 1874-86 eight group shows 1874 Leroy Monet, Renoir, Degas, Cézanne, Pissarro, Manet, Morisot, Sisley, Bazille (FR), Cassatt (US-FR), Caillebotte (FR), Whistler, Sickert, Steer (UK) painting

FR Orsay, Orangerie. UK Courtauld, NG London, Tate, Tate Br.I.. US Guggenheim, Met, Met US i., NGA, Philadelphia M, LACMA, MiA, Artic, Denver M. RU Hermitage. NL Gemeente. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Artsy US i., Google AP.
en Grove, Met, SSM, Tate, Tate UK i., Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Arts and Crafts 1884 Art Workers' Guild founded 1887 Cobden-Sanderson
1893 Arts and Crafts Essays
Morris, Rossetti, Brown, Burne-Jones, Ashbee, Voysey (UK) design Ruskin 1853

UK V&A, Tate. US Met. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Tate, V&A, Wikipedia. de Hartmann. it Treccani.

Aesthetic Movement, Aestheticism 2011 The Cult of Beauty 1882 Hamilton Godwin, Whistler, Beardsley, A Moore, Jeckyll, Dresser (UK), Herter Brothers, Ott & Brewer of Trenton, Tiffany, La Forge (US) painting, design, architecture

UK V&A, Tate. US Met. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove DA, Tate, V&A, Wikipedia.

Neo-Impressionism, Divisionism, Pointillism 1886 last Impressionist show 1886 Fénéon Seurat, Signac, Pissarro, Cross, Luce, Angrand, Dubois-Pillet, Petitjean (FR), Rysselberghe, Finch, Boch, Toorop, Lemmen (BE), Segantini, Previati (IT) painting post-impr., anarchism

FR Pompidou d. RU Hermitage. UK Tate. US Met, Met p. INT Artsy, Artsy p., Google AP.
en Grove, SSM, Tate, Wikipedia, Wikipedia p. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

1997 Symbolism in Britain
2007 Symbolism in Belgium
2012 Australian Symbolism
2015 Symbolism in Bohemian Lands
1891 Aurier
1906-10 Zolotoe runo
Moreau, Chavannes, Redon, Carrière (FR), Böcklin (CH-IT), Burne-Jones (UK), Gauguin (FR), Munch (NO-DE), Hodler (CH), Toorop (ID-NL-BE-UK), Khnopff, Ensor (BE), Picasso (ES), Klimt (AT), Vrubel, Borisov-Musatov (RU), Čiurlionis (LT-PL), Malczewski (PL), Rossetti, Watts (UK), Delville (BE), Klinger (DE-IT), Segantini (AT-IT-CH) painting, sculpture Baudelaire 1857, Moréas 1886, mythology

GR Costakis. US Met, MiA. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Guggenheim, Met, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Post-Impressionism 1886-93 Les XX annual shows
1910 Manet and the Post-Impressionists
1912 Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition
1979 Post-Impressionism: Cross-Currents in European Painting
1910 Fry Cézanne, Van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin, Seurat, Les Nabis: Sérusier, Bonnard, Vuillard, Denis (FR), Prendergast (US-FR) painting

US Barnes, DIA, Met, Guggenheim, NGA, MiA, Artic. UK Courtauld, NG London, Tate. NL Van Gogh M Amsterdam. RU Hermitage. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Met, SSM, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Synthetism 1889 Volpini Exhibition Gauguin, Schuffenecker, Bernard, Laval, Sérusier (FR) painting Japanese woodcuts, Cloisonnism

INT Google AP.
en SSM, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. no SNL.

Secession, Sezessionstil 1893 Internationale Kunst-Ausstellung des Vereins bildender Künstler Münchens "Secession"
1898 I. Kunst-Ausstellung der Vereinigung bildender Künstler Österreichs
1899 Deutsche Kunstausstellung der Berliner Secession
1902 Beethovenausstellung +
1898-1903 Ver Sacrum Stuck, Uhde, Dill, Habermann (DE), Klimt, Hoffmann, Moser, Moll, Kurzweil (AT), Liebermann, Corinth, Leistikow, Slevogt, Beckmann, Barlach (DE) painting, sculpture, mural, printmaking, craft, design, architecture impr., art nouveau

FR Pompidou. US Frye M, Met v.s. UK V&A. INT Artsy v.s., Google AP V.S.
en Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Art Nouveau,
Style nouille,
Modern Style,
Glasgow Style,
Stile Liberty,
Stil' modern
1895 L'Art Nouveau gallery opens
1900 Exposition universelle
1901 Glasgow International Exhibition
1902 Esposizione internazionale d'arte decorativa moderna
1889-1914 Le Plume
1893-1964 The Studio
1896-1940 Jugend
1899-1904 Mir iskusstva
Horta, Hankar (BE), Van de Velde (BE-DE), Galle, Feure, Colonna, Gaillard (FR), Mucha (CZ-FR), Fouquet, Bracquemond, Lalique, Chéret, Toulouse-Lautrec (FR), Eckmann, Behrens, Endell, Obrist, Paul, Riemerschmid (DE), Sezession artists and designers (AT-DE), Mackintosh, Macnair, M & F Macdonald, Beardsley (UK), Schechtel (RU), Bugatti (IT), Tiffany (US) design, architecture, painting, sculpture botany, nature, Arts and Crafts, Japonisme, Violett-le-Duc

FR LAD Paris jewelry, LAD Paris glass, Pompidou. UK V&A, Tate (G.s.). RU Hermitage. NL Gemeente. US Met, MiA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove DA, Met, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Tate G.s., V&A G.s., Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Photo-Secession 1902 American Pictorial Photography
1905 The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession opens (renamed 291 in 1908)
1903-17 Camera Work
1903 Stieglitz
1960 Doty
Stieglitz (US), Steichen (LX-US), White, Käsebier (US), Coburn (US-UK), Eugene (US) photography pictorialism, secession

US Met.
en Britannica, Grove, Grove US, Met, Tate, Wikipedia.

Fauvism 1905 Salon d'Automne
1906 Salon d'Automne
1905 Vauxcelles
1908 Matisse
Matisse, Camoin, Manguin, Marquet, Derain, de Vlaminck, Braque, Dufy, Friesz (FR), van Dongen (NL-FR), Puy, Valtat, Rouault (FR), Kupka (CZ-FR) (FR) painting post-impr.

FR Pompidou. US Met, MiA. RU Hermitage. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Met, MoMA, Oxford DA, SSM, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani, Treccani. no SNL.

Expressionism 1905 Brücke founded
1911 Blaue Reiter founded
2015 Storm Women
1906 Brücke Manifesto
1908 Worringer
1912 Blaue Reiter Almanac
1910-32 Der Sturm
1918 November Group Manifesto
Kirchner, Heckel, Marc (DE), Kandinsky, Jawlensky (RU-DE), Schiele, Kokoschka (AT), Nolde, Rohlfs, Schmidt-Rottluff, Pechstein, Macke, Feininger, Dix, Beckmann, Barlach, Kollwitz (DE), Permeke (BE), Váchal (CZ); groups: Brücke, Blaue Reiter, Rheinische Expressionisten, Pathetiker, Novembergruppe, Gruppe 1919 (DE), Latemse School (BE), Osma (CZ) painting, printmaking (esp. woodcut), sculpture, architecture Van Gogh, Munch, Klimt, "primitivism", art of children

DE Schleswig-Holstein museums, Ziegler, Ketterer. FR Pompidou, Pompidou B.. AT Leopold M Vienna. US MoMA, Met, Met B., LACMA, MiA. RU Hermitage. NL Gemeente. UK Tate. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Artsy g.e., Artsy B., Google AP.
en Grove, Grove B., Guggenheim, MoMA, Oxford DA, SSM B., Tate, Tate g.e., Tate B., Wikipedia, Wikipedia g.e., Wikipedia B. it Treccani. es Akal B. cr Šuvaković, Šuvaković g.e. no SNL, SNL B.

Cubism 1907 Kahnweiler Gallery opens
1911 Salle 41 at Salon des Indépendants
1912 Salon de la Section d'or
1913 Armory Show
1936 Cubism and Abstract Art
1908 Vauxcelles
1912 Gleizes & Metzinger
1920 Kahnweiler
1939/1951 Barr
1972 Steinberg
Picasso (ES-FR), Braque (FR), Gris (ES-FR), Léger, Metzinger, R Delaunay, Gleizes, Archipenko (UA-FR), Duchamp, Duchamp-Villon (FR), Le Fauconnier, Lipchitz (LT-FR), Laurens (FR), Picabia (FR), Zadkine (RU-FR), Csaky (HU-FR), Kupka (CZ-FR), Marcoussis, La Fresnaye, Chagall, Lhôte (FR), Rivera (MX), Filla, Beneš (CZ) painting, sculpture, drawing, collage, construction, assemblage, architecture Cézanne, "primitivism"

FR Pompidou. US Lauder/Met +, Guggenheim, MiA. RU Hermitage. UK Tate. CZ Czech Cubism M Prague. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Google AP, (more).
en Britannica, Grove, Met, MoMA, Monoskop, Pompidou, SSM, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Futurism 1910 first series of serate evenings
1912 Les peintres futuristes italiens
1961 Futurism MoMA
1986 Futurism & Futurisms Venice
2009 Futurism Tate
2014 Italian Futurism, 1909-1944 Guggenheim
1909 Marinetti
1910 Boccioni et al
1911 Bragaglia
1912 Boccioni
1913 Russolo
Marinetti, Boccioni, Balla, Carrà, Severini, Russolo, Bragaglia, Prampolini (IT) painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking, film, architecture symbolism, neo-impr., cubism

IT Mattioli/Guggenheim. FR Pompidou. US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. UK Tate. GR Costakis books. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en EUA, Grove, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Pompidou, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Cubo-Expressionism 1912 Group of Plastic Artists 1967 Lamač Kubišta, Čapek, Gutfreund, Filla, Kubín, Beneš, Procházka, Zrzavý, Group of Plastic Artists (CZ) painting, sculpture, architecture, film expr., cubism
Orphism, Simultanism,
Orphic Cubism
1913 Salon des Indépendants 1913 Apollinaire R Delaunay, S Delaunay (FR), Kupka (CZ-FR), Exter (UA-FR) painting cubism, light, abstraction

FR Pompidou. US Guggenheim, MiA. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Grove, Tate, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani, Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Blaue Reiter 1911 group founded
1911 Die erste Ausstellung der Redaktion Der Blaue Reiter
1912 Die zweite Ausstellung der Redaktion Der Blaue Reiter Schwarz-Weiß
1911 Kandinsky
1912 Blaue Reiter Almanac
Kandinsky (RU-DE), Marc, Münter (DE), Kubin (AT), Klee (CH-DE), Macke (DE), Jawlensky, Werefkin (RU-DE) painting, printmaking expr., futurism, fauvism, cubism, "primitivism", child art

DE Lenbachhaus Munich. FR +. US Met. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Oxford DA, Wikipedia. it Treccani. es Akal. no SNL.

Neo-Primitivism 1912 Oslinyi khvost
1913 Mishen'
1913 Shevchenko Larionov, Goncharova, Malevich, Shevchenko, Chagall, D Burliuk, Filonov, Donkey's Tail group (RU) painting lubok, icons, peasant art & craft

en Oxford DA, Wikipedia.

Cubo-Futurism 1913 Victory Over the Sun
1915 Tramway V
1915 0.10
1912 A Slap in the Face of Public Taste
1914 Bogomazov
D Burliuk, Larionov, Goncharova, Malevich, Rozanova (RU), Exter (UA-FR), Lentulov (RU-FR), Tatlin, Popova, Kliun (RU), Bogomazov (UA), Hylaea group (RU) painting cubism, futurism

GR Costakis. FR Pompidou.
en Grove, Oxford DA, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković.

Rayonism, Rayism, Luchism 1913 Mishen' 1913 Larionov Larionov, Goncharova (RU) painting futurism

FR Pompidou. INT Google AP.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. no SNL.

Vorticism 1914 Rebel Art Centre
1915 Vorticist Group
1917Exhibition of the Vorticists at the Penguin
2010 Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914-1918 + +
1914 Lewis et al
1914-5 Blast
1914 Pound
W Lewis (UK), Gaudier-Brzeska (FR-UK), Jacob Epstein (US-UK), Wadsworth, Bomberg (UK), Coburn (US-UK), W Roberts, Saunders, Dismorr, Etchells (UK) painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing futurism, cubism, machine

UK Tate, V&A. FR Pompidou.
en Grove, Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Suprematism 1915 0.10
1919 X Gosudarstvennaya vystavka
1922 Erste russische Kunstausstellung
1927 Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung
1915 Malevich
1927 Malevich
Malevich (RU-BY), Kliun, Rozanova, Menkov, Udaltsova, Puni (RU), Lissitzky, Suetin (RU-BY), Chashnik, Khidekel (BY-RU), groups: Supremus (RU), Unovis (RU-BY) painting, sculpture, design, craft, architecture zaum, fourth dimension

GR Costakis. FR Pompidou. US Guggenheim, MiA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Hungarian Activists
1914 group founded
1916-17 Fiatalok shows
1973 Magyar Aktivizmus
2016 A magyar aktivizmus, 1914-1927
1915-16 A Tett
1916-26 Ma
1971 Szabó
Kassák, Uitz, Bortnyik, Tihanyi, Mattis-Teutsch, Nemes-Lampérth, Kmetty (HU), Dobrović (SR-HU) painting, printmaking expr., cubism, constr.

en Oxford DMCA. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Wikipedia-HU.

Dada 1916 Cabaret Voltaire events
1920 Erste Internationale Dada-Messe
1921 Salon Dada
1953 Dada 1916-1923
2005 Dada +
1916 Cabaret Voltaire (ed. Ball)
1917 The Blindman (ed. Duchamp)
1917-21 Dada (ed. Tzara)
1917-24 391 (ed. Picabia)
1922-23 Mécano (ed. Doesburg)
1923-32 Schwitters' Merz
Ball (DE-CH), Tzara (RO-CH-FR), Richter (DE-CH), Janco (RO-CH), Arp (DE-CH), Taeuber (CH), Picabia (FR), Duchamp (FR-US), Schwitters (DE), Höch, Hausmann, Heartfield, Grosz, Ernst (DE), Ray (US-FR), Doesburg (NL), Freytag-Loringhoven (DE-US) performance, collage, photography, photomontage, printmaking, painting, film

DE Berlinische. FR Pompidou. US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove US, Grove, MoMA, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Metaphysical Art, Pittura Metafisica 1921 Valori plastici 1913 Apollinaire
1918-22 Valori plastici
1919 Carrà
de Chirico (IT-FR), Carrà, Morandi, Sironi, Casorati, de Pisis (IT) painting Nietzsche, symbolism, Giotto

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. no SNL.

De Stijl,
1923 Les Architectes du groupe De Stijl
2010 Mondrian/De Stijl
1917-32 De Stijl
1917 Mondrian
1918 van Doesburg et al
1925 Mondrian
1925 van Doesburg
van Doesburg (NL), Mondrian (NL-FR), Huszár (HU-NL), van der Leck (NL) painting, sculpture, printmaking, architecture, design cubism, abstraction

NL Gemeente. FR Pompidou D.S., + N.. US Met, MiA. UK Tate, V&A. INT Artsy, Artsy n.p., Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Grove, Guggenheim, Oxford DA, Oxford DA, Pompidou, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani, Treccani (e.). cr Šuvaković. no SNL, SNL, SNL (e.).

Formism 1917 I wystawa Ekspresjonistów Polskich
1919 I wystawa Formistów Polskich
1918 Chwistek
1919 Witkacy
1919-21 Formiści
Czyżewski, Chwistek, Witkiewicz, A Pronaszko, Z Pronaszko (PL) painting expr., cubism, futurism

PL MN Warsaw +.
en Monoskop.

Purism 1918 Ozenfant et Jeanneret
1921 Ozenfant et Jeanneret peintres puristes
1918 Jeanneret & Ozenfant
1920-5 L'Esprit nouveau
1921 Ozenfant & Jeanneret
1925 Ozenfant & Jeanneret
1928 Ozenfant
Jeanneret (CH-FR), Ozenfant, Léger (FR) painting, architecture cubism, machine

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Agitprop 1918 ROSTA established
1920 Agit-prop Dept established
1918 Lenin's call for monumental propaganda Cheremnykh, Mayakovsky, Moor, Rodchenko (RU), Exter (UA-FR), Popova, Rozanova, Tatlin (RU), Klutsis (LV-RU) design, printmaking, sculpture

en Grove DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Wikipedia.

Bauhaus 1919 Bauhaus founded
1923 Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar, 1919-1923
1938 Bauhaus 1919–1928
1919 Gropius
1923 Gropius
1925-29 Bauhausbücher
Gropius, Itten, Feininger, Schlemmer (DE), Klee (CH-DE), Kandinsky (RU-DE), Moholy-Nagy (HU-AT-DE), Bayer, Breuer, Albers (DE) painting, sculpture, mural, printmaking, photography, design, textiles, architecture expr., constr., functionalism

DE Bauhaus-Archiv. US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. FR Pompidou. UK Tate, V&A. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Met, Met photogr., Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković.

Constructivism 1921 INKhUK debate
1921 Vtoraya vesennyaya vystavka Obmokhu
1922 Düsseldorf congress
1922 Weimar congress
1922 First Russian Art Exhibition
1920 Gabo
1922 Rodchenko, Stepanova, et al.
1922 Gan
Tatlin, Gabo, Rodchenko, Popova (RU), Stepanova (LT-RU), Stenberg bros, Medunetsky (RU), Ioganson, Klutsis (LV-RU), Vesnin brothers (RU), Kobro (RU-PL), Strzemiński (PL-RU), Szczuka (PL), Kassák (HU), more spatial construction, set design, graphic design

GR Costakis. US Guggenheim. FR Pompidou. UK Tate, Tate UK c. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Zenitism 1924 Première exposition internationale d'art nouveau 1921-26 Zenit
1921 Micić
1921 Goll
1921 Micić, Goll, Tokin
Petrov (SR), Klek/Seissel, Gecan (CR) painting, printmaking expr., constr., futurism, dada

CR Sudac.
en Monoskop, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković.

Mexican Muralism,
1921 Vasconcelos's mural program launched 1921 Siqueiros
1924 Siqueiros et al
Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros, Tamayo (MX), Mérida (GT-MX), Leal, Revueltas, Montenegro, O'Gorman (MX), Charlot (FR-MX), Castellanos (MX), Sabogal (PE), Guzmán de Rojas (BO), Egas, Guayasamín (EC), Acuña Tapias (CO) mural painting Italian Renaissance, 1900s-20s avant-garde art, neoclassicism, Marx & Lenin

US WPA. INT Schalkwijk Archive, Artsy.
en Tate mm, Tate i, Oxford DA mm, Wikipedia. es Akal m.

Modernismo Brasileiro 1922 Semana de Arte Moderna 1922-23 Klaxon Malfatti, Di Cavalcanti, Monteiro, Tarsila (BR), Brecheret (IT-BR), Segall (LT-DE-BR), Graz, Gomide, Nery, Dias (BR), Goeldi (BR-CH), Guignard (BR-DE) painting, drawing, sculpture cubism, futurism, surrealism

en Tate. pt Wikipedia-PT.

Stridentism, Estridentismo 1924 first Stridentist exhibition 1921 Maples Arce
1923 Maples Arce
1924 Irradiador
1926 List Arzubide
Revueltas, Alva de la Canal, Méndez, Cueto (MX) performance, printmaking, sculpture, painting futurism, ultraism, modernisation, technology

en Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia.

Harlem Renaissance, New Negro Movement 1928-33 Exhibit of Fine Arts Productions of American Negro Artists series 1925 Locke, PDF
1926 Fire!!
1940 Locke
1943 Porter
Fuller, Douglas, Motley, Hayden, MG Johnson, LM Jones, Bearden, J Lawrence, NW Lewis, Catlett, Parks (US) painting, sculpture, mural, printmaking

US Smithsonian, SLAM, Met, Artic, Schomburg/NYPL. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove US, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia.

Unism 1927 Strzemiński's first solo show 1924 Strzemiński
1928 Strzemiński
1931 Strzemiński & Kobro
Strzemiński (PL-RU), Kobro (RU-PL), Stażewski (PL) painting, sculpture, architecture, design suprematism, De Stijl

pl Wikipedia-PL.

Neues Sehen
New Vision
1929 Film und Foto
1931 Fotomontage
1925 Moholy-Nagy
1929 Roh
1929 Moholy-Nagy
Moholy-Nagy (HU-DE), Lissitzky (RU-DE), Rodchenko (RU), Bayer (AT-DE), Peterhans (DE), Citroen (DE-NL), Umbo, Renger-Patzsch, Biermann (DE), Man Ray (US-FR), Moholy (CZ-DE), Henri (US-DE-FR), Krull (DE-FR), Funke, Rössler (CZ), Finsler (CH-DE), Stone (RU-DE), Consemüller (DE) photography, photogram, photomontage Bauhaus

DE Folkwang. US Thomas Walther/MoMA. FR Pompidou.
en Met, Tate, Wikipedia.

Neue Sachlichkeit, New Objectivity 1925 Die neue Sachlichkeit
2015 New Objectivity, 1919-1933
1922 Das Kunstblatt 9
1925 Hartlaub
1925 Roh
verists: Dix, Grosz, Beckmann, Schad, Schlichter, Hubbuch, Scholz; classicists: Kanoldt, Schrimpf, Mense, Davringhausen, Schnarrenberger, Viegener; photography: Renger-Patzsch, Sander (DE) painting, photography pittura metafisica

DE Lenbachhaus Munich. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Guggenheim, Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Surrealism 1925 La Peinture surréaliste
1936 Exposition surréaliste d'objects
1936 International Surrealist Exhibition
1936 Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism
1938 Exposition internationale du surréalisme
1972 Surrealism 1922–1942
1924 Breton
1925-27 Breton
1929 Breton
1930 Bataille et al
1985 Krauss
Ernst, Arp (DE-FR), Man Ray (US-FR), Masson (FR), Miró (ES), Tanguy (FR), Magritte, Mesens (BE), Giacometti (CH-FR), Sima (CZ-FR), Dalí (ES), Penrose (UK-FR), Toyen, Štyrský (CZ-FR), Brauner (RO-FR), Koga (JP), Ubac (BE-FR), Oppenheim (DE-CH), Domínguez (ES), Paalen (AT-MX), Delvaux (BE), Tanning (US), Matta (CL), Fini (AR), Lam (CU-FR) painting, sculpture, drawing, collage, relief, film automatism, Freud's psychoan., dada

FR Pompidou. UK Tate, NGS, V&A. US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. AR MNBA. AU NGA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Met, Met photogr., MoMA, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Pompidou, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Art Deco 1925 Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels 1912 Vera Poiret, Süe, Mare, Dunand, Follot, Legrain, Puiforcat, Ruhlmann (FR), studios: Atelier Martine, Atelier Français, Compagnie des arts français (FR) furniture, pottery, textiles, jewellery, glass art nouveau

FR LAD Paris + +, Pompidou. UK V&A. NL Gemeente. US Met, MiA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Grove DA, Met, Tate, V&A, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Artificialism 1926 Štyrský & Toyen's first solo show 1927 Štyrský & Toyen Štyrský, Toyen painting, drawing, collage surrealism, poetry

cz ArtsLexikon. cr Šuvaković.

Socialist Realism 1928 10-letiye Krasnoy Armii
1935 Pervaya vystavka leningradskikh khudozhnikov
1933 Beskin
1934 Zhdanov
1936 Zhdanov
Deineka, Brodsky, Gerasimov, B Ioganson, Samokhvalov, Plastov, Nissky, Pimenov, Laktionov (RU), Khmelko (UA), associations: AKhRR, Society of Easel Painters/OSt (RU) painting, sculpture, mural, architecture Peredvizhniki, agitprop

RU IRRI. UK Art Russe, Tate. US MORA. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Precisionism 1960 The Precisionist View in American Art 1927 Barr
1943-5 Brown
Sheeler, O'Keeffe, Demuth, Ault, Driggs, Dickinson, Hirsch, Lozowick, Spencer, Stella (US) painting, drawing, printmaking cubism, dada, realism, modernisation, machine

US Met, MiA. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Grove US, Met, Wikipedia. it Treccani.

Abstraction-Création 1931 association founded 1932-36 Abstraction-création Herbin, Hélion (FR), Vantongerloo (BE-FR), Arp (DE-FR), Gabo (RU-UK), Kandinsky (RU-DE), Mondrian (NL), Hepworth, Nicholson (UK) painting, sculpture cubism, De Stijl, constr.

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Britannica, Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. es Akal. no SNL.

American Documentary Photography 1935 Farm Security Administration launched
1938 MoMA show of Evans
Evans, Lange, Rothstein, Vachon, R Lee, Wolcott (US) photography

en Tate, Wikipedia.

Nuevo Realismo,
New Realism
1936 Berni Berni, Castagnino, Urruchúa, Policastro, Alonso (AR) painting, mural


Concrete Art 1944 Konkrete Kunst
1946 1ª Exposición de la Asociación Arte Concreto Invención
1951 Arte Astratta e Concreta in Italia
1952 Ruptura
1960 Concrete Art: Fifty Years of Development
1930 van Doesburg et al
1944-45 Abstrakt Konkret
1946 Inventionist Manifesto +
1946 Madí Manifesto
1952 Ruptura Manifesto
1957 Gerstner
Bill (CH), van Doesburg (NL), Vasarely (HU-FR), Morellet (FR), Albers (DE-US), Graeser, Lohse (CH), Espinosa, Maldonado (AR), Arden Quin (UY-AR-FR), Kosice (SK-AR), Bloc (FR), Soldati, Munari (IT), Cordeiro (BR); groups: Concrete-Invention Art Association, Madí (AR), Movimento arte concreta (IT), Espace (FR), Ruptura (BR) painting, sculpture constr., abstraction

FR Pompidou, + M. US Met. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en CVAA, Grove, Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Tate inv., Wikipedia. es Akal, CVAA. fr Larousse. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Black Mountain College 1944 first summer arts program
2015 Leap Before You Look: Black Mountain College 1933-1957
Josef Albers, Anni Albers, Schawinsky, Feininger, Gropius (DE-US), Cage, Cunningham, de Kooning, Motherwell, Kline; students: Chamberlain, Ray Johnson, Noland, Rauschenberg, Twombly, Vanderbeek (US) painting, performance, printmaking, drawing, weaving, textile, photography, design, architecture Bauhaus

INT Artsy.
en Grove, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Wikipedia. es Akal. cr Šuvaković.

Lettrism 1946 Première manifestation lettriste 1946 La Dictature lettriste
1950 Isou
1950-53 Ur
1952 Ion
Isou (RO-FR), Pomerand, Roberdhay, Dufrêne, Lemaître, Wolman, Brau (FR) printmaking, film, painting, collage dada, surrealism, everyday life

FR Pompidou. INT UbuWeb.
en Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Abstract Expressionism,
New York School
1947 Possibilities
1948 de Kooning at MoMA
1946 Coates
1947 Possibilities
1952 Rosenberg
1970 Sandler
1994 Clark
action painting: Pollock, de Kooning, Gorky, Kline (US), early colour field painting: Rothko, Newman, Still (US), other: Motherwell, Gottlieb, Guston, Frankenthaler (US) painting surrealism, automatism, expr., colour field

US Guggenheim, Met, Met a.p., NGA, MiA. UK Tate. FR Pompidou, + a.p.. INT Artsy, Artsy a.p., Artsy NY, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Grove a.p., Met, MoMA a.p., Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Tate a.p., Wikipedia, Wikipedia a.p. fr Larousse a.p. it Treccani a.p. es Akal a.p. cr Šuvaković a.p., Šuvaković, Šuvaković (NYS). hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik a.p. no SNL.

Lyrical Abstraction, Abstraction Lyrique 1947 L'Imaginaire 1947 Mathieu da Silva, de Staël, Soulages, Wou Ki (FR) painting art informel, abstract expr.

FR Pompidou. US Met.
en Wikipedia. fr Larousse. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. no SNL. sl Pojmovnik.

1950 Arte spaziale 1946 Fontana et al
1947 Fontana et al
Fontana (AR-IT), Crippa, Joppolo, Dova, Dangelo, Peverelli, Carozzi (IT) painting, installation

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Grove, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Art Brut,
Outsider Art
1948 Compagnie de l'Art Brut formed
1949 L'art brut préféré aux arts culturels
1949 Dubuffet Aloïse (Corbaz) (CH), Forestier (FR), Gill (UK), Lesage (FR), Wölfli (CH), Maisonneuve, Parguey, Salingardes, Tripier (FR) painting, drawing, sculpture, carving, manuscript, embroidery Prinzhorn 1922

CH Art Brut Lausanne. FR ABCD Paris, LAM Lille, Pompidou. DE Prinzhorn Heidelberg. JP NO-MA. US Guggenheim, Met. UK Musgrave Kinley London, Tate, Tate o.a. INT Artsy, Artsy o.a.
en Grove, Oxford DA, Tate, Tate o.a., Wikipedia. it Treccani. es Akal. hu Artportal.

CoBrA 1948 group founded
1949 Bregnerød congress
1949 International Experimental Art
1948 Dotremont et al Jorn (DK), Constant, Appel (NL), Dotremont, Alechinsky (BE), Jacobsen, Pedersen, Heerup (DK), Nieuwenhuys, Corneille (NL), Atlan (DZ-FR), Gilbert (UK-FR), Götz (DE) painting, mural, sculpture expr., surrealism, informel, Marxism

NL Cobra Museum. DK Kunsten Aalborg, Birch. FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Grove, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. no SNL.

Perceptismo 1949 First Exhibition of Perceptista Painting 1950-53 Perceptismo R Lozza, RD Lozza (AR) painting concrete art

AR MNBA. ES Lafuente.
en CVAA, Tate. es CVAA, Wikipedia-ES.

Art Informel,
Art Autre,
1951 Véhémences confrontées
1952 Un art autre
1950 Tapié
1951 Guéguen
1951 Estienne
1952 Tapié
1962 Paulhan
Dubuffet, Wols, Fautrier, Mathieu, Matta, Michaux, Poliakoff, Soulages, de Staël, Hartung (FR) painting abstract expr., automatism, existentialism, Kandinsky, Klee

FR Pompidou i., Pompidou t. US Guggenheim, Met. UK Tate. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Google AP t.
en CVAA AR, Oxford DA, Oxford DA t., Tate, Tate t., Wikipedia, Wikipedia t. es Akal, CVAA AR. fr Larousse, Larousse t. it Treccani, Treccani t. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik. no SNL.

Independent Group 1951 Growth and Form
1953 Parallel of Art and Life
1955 Man, Machine, and Motion
1956 This is Tomorrow
Hamilton, Henderson, McHale, Paolozzi, Turnbull (UK) collage, sculpture, painting cinema, science fiction, advertising, pop music, pop art

UK Tate.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković.

Jikken Kobo,
Experimental Workshop
1951 collective founded
1953 5th Exhibition and Presentation
2009 Experimental Workshop: Japan 1950–1958
1953-54 Asahi Picture News Yamaguchi, Kitadai, Fukushima, Akiyama, Komai, Ōtsuji, composers: Takemitsu, Yuasa, Suzuki, Satō (JP) performance, environment, printmaking, film, photography

en Monoskop, Tate. jp Wikipedia-JA.

Gutai Bijutsu Kyokai
1954 group founded
1955 1st Gutai Art Exhibition
1958 Gutai Group Exhibition NY
1960 International Sky Festival
1955-65 Gutai
1956 Yoshihara
Yoshihara, Shimamoto, Kanayama, Motonaga, Murakami, Shiraga, Sumi, Tanaka (JP) painting, performance, installation, environment, printmaking, film informel, abstract expr.

JP Osaka City Museum of Modern Art. FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Monoskop, Wikipedia. fr Universalis. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Fantastic Realism, Phantastischer Realismus 1959 Belvedere exhibition
1990 Die Phantasten
2008 Fantastic Realism
2016 Pražský fantastický realismus 1960–1967
1974 Muschik Fuchs, Brauer, Hausner, Hutter, Lehmden (AT), Dado (ME-SR-FR), Jedlička, Rachlík, Kotyza (CZ) painting surrealism

en Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Kinetic Art, Kineticism 1955 Mouvement
1961 Rörelse i konsten
1964-66 Signals Gallery
1966 9 Evenings
1955 Vasarely
1964-66 Signals
Tinguely (CH), Bury (BE-FR), Soto (VE-FR), Agam (IL-FR), Takis (GR-FR), Medalla (PH-UK), GRAV (FR), Dvizheniye (RU) sculpture Gabo 1919-20, Duchamp 1924, Calder 1932ff

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. US Guggenheim. INT Artsy k.s., Google AP.
en Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Hard-Edge Painting 1959 Four Abstract Classicists
1966 Systemic Painting
1959 Langster Kelly, Newman, Noland, Reinhardt, Stella, Williams, Gilliam (US) painting

US Guggenheim. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Artportal. no SNL.

Neo-Dada 1958 Johns' show at Castelli 1957 Rosenblum
1962 Rose
Johns, Rauschenberg, Rivers, Kaprow, Dine, Oldenburg (US), Neo-Dada Organizers (JP) collage, assemblage dada, nouveau réalisme, pop art

US Guggenheim. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, SSM, Tate, Walker, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal

Cybernetic Sculpture,
Robotic Art
1968 Cybernetic Serendipity 1997 Kac Schöffer (HU-FR), Paik (KO-US), Bonačić (CR), Ihnatowicz (PL-UK), Pask (UK), Dvizheniye (RU) sculpture cybernetics
Pop Art 1956 This is Tomorrow
1962 Green Gallery show
1962 The New Realists
1962 The Factory opens
1963 Six Painters and the Object
2010 Seductive Subversion: Women Pop Artists, 1958–1968
2015 International Pop
2015 World Goes Pop
1957 Hamilton
1958 Alloway
1962 Alloway
Hamilton, Paolozzi, Blake, R Smith, Tilson, A Jones, Caulfield (UK), Warhol, Lichtenstein, Rivers, Rauschenberg, Johns, Rosenquist, Oldenburg, Wesselmann (US), Dich­gans, Klapheck, Roehr (DE), group: Scuola di Piazza del Popolo (IT), Shinohara (JP), Želibská (CZ-SK), Otašević (SR), Zieliński, Pinińska-Bereś (PL) printmaking, painting, collage, sculpture advertising, popular culture, mass media, machine-line production

US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. UK Tate b.p., V&A. FR Pompidou. AR MNBA. INT Ludwig, Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, MoMA, Oxford DA, Pompidou, SSM, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Artportal. no SNL.

Zero 1957 First Evening Exhibition
1958 The Red Picture
1959 Motion in Vision–Vision in Motion
1960 The New Conception
1961 ZERO. Edition, Exposition, Demonstration
1962 Nul 62
2014 ZERO: Countdown to Tomorrow
1958-61 Zero
1964 Piene
Piene, Mack, Uecker (DE), Klein (FR), Tinguely (CH), Fontana (AR-IT), Manzoni (IT), Bury (BE-FR), Soto (VE-FR), Spoerri (RO-CH), Nul group (NL) painting, sculpture, drawing, environment, performance kinetic art

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Situationists 1957 Situationiste Internationale founded
1989 On the Passage of a Few People Through a Brief Moment in Time
1958-69 Internationale situationniste
1967 Debord
Debord, Constant, Viénet (FR), Jorn (DK), Gruppe SPUR (DE) printmaking, painting, architecture lettrism, Marxism, consumerism

FR Pompidou. UK Tate.
en Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković.

Zaria Art Society, Zaria Rebels 1958 group formed 1959-60 Okeke
1995 Onobrakpeya
U Okeke, Nwoko, Onobrakpeya, Grillo, S Okeke, Osadebe, Odita, Nwagbara (NG) painting, sculpture

en Tate.

Neoconcretism 1959 First Neo-Concrete Art Exhibition 1959 Manifesto Neoconcreto
1959 Gullar
Clark, Oiticica, de Camargo, de Castro, Pape, Weissmann (BR) sculpture concrete art

UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Monoskop.

Happening 1959 Kaprow's 18 Happenings in 6 Parts
1998 Out of Actions: Between Performance and the Object, 1949-1979
2012 Happenings: New York, 1958–1963
1958 Kaprow
1965 Kirby
1966 Sontag
Kaprow, Oldenburg, Dine, Whitman (US), Forti (IT-US), Lebel (FR), Vostell (DE), Viennese Actionists (AT), Fahlström (SW), Kudo (JP-FR), Schneemann (US), Pommereulle (FR), Knížák (CZ), Kusama (JP-US), Kantor (PL) performance action painting, Cage

US Guggenheim. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal

Nouveau Réalisme 1960 Les Nouveaux Réalistes
1961 First Festival of New Realism
1961 The Art of Assemblage
1963 Second Festival of New Realism
2010 New Realisms
1960 Restany
1961 Restany
1963 Restany
2013 Cabañas
Arman, César, Dufrêne, Hains, Klein, Raysse (FR), Spoerri (RO-CH), Tinguely (CH), Villeglé (FR), Christo (BG-FR) collage, assemblage, painting Duchamp, neo-dada

FR Pompidou. US Met. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Guggenheim, Pompidou, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal

Environment 1962 Dylaby
1967-68 Environment, I-V
1958 Kaprow
1969 Wedewer
1972 Kepes
Kaprow, Oldenburg, Dine, Kienholz, Segal (US), Soto (VE-FR), Alviani, Colombo, Castellani (IT) mixed-media construction, assemblage Schwitters' Merzbau

en Tate, Wikipedia i.a. it Treccani. hu Artportal

Fluxus 1961 AG Gallery events
1962 Kleines Sommerfest: après John Cage
2007 Fluxus East
1963 Maciunas
1963 Monte Young
1998 Friedman
Maciunas, Flynt, G Brecht (US), Vautier (FR), Watts, Higgins, Knowles, Patterson, Paik, Williams, Hutchins (US), Ono (JP-US), Schmit, Beuys (DE), Filliou (FR), Tokyo Fluxus (JP) performance, sculpture, printmaking expanded arts

US Met, MiA. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Britannica, Grove, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Viennese Actionism
1962 Blutorgel
1963 Fest des Psycho–Physischen Naturalismus
1968 Kunst und Revolution
2016 Body, Psyche, and Taboo
1962 Nitsch, Mühl, Frohner G Brus, Muehl, Nitsch, Schwarzkogler, A Brus, Cibulka, Valie Export (AT) performance happening, Reich, Jung, Wiener 1954

AT Mumok. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy, UbuWeb.
en Monoskop, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Body Art 1970-76 Avalanche
1998 Jones
Acconci, Burden, Schneemann, Wilke, Ukeles, McCarthy, Nauman, Benglis, Rosler (US), Kusama, Ono, Kubota (JP-US), Mendieta (CU-US), Pane, Journiac, Orlan (FR), Valie Export (AT), Iveković, Abramović, Gotovac (YU), Mlčoch, Štembera (CZ), Bereś, KwieKulik (PL), Hajas (HU), Brătescu, Grigorescu (RO) performance, happening, painting, sculpture, photography, film, video happening, Fluxus, contemp. dance, actionism, destruction art

US Met. FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Hatje Cantz, Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Walker, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Khartoum School,
Madrasat al Khartoum
2016 The Khartoum School: the Making of the Modern Art Movement in Sudan 1962 D Williams Salahi, Shibrain, Rabbah, Ishaq, Nour, Ahmed (SD-UK) painting, drawing, sculpture

UK Tate.
en Tate.

Colour Field Painting, Post-Painterly Abstraction 1964 Post-Painterly Abstraction 1955 Greenberg
1970 Sandler
Rothko, Newman, Still, Frankenthaler, M Louis, Noland, Alma Thomas, Gilliam (US), Denny, Hoyland, R Smith (UK) painting abstract expr.

US Guggenheim, Met. UK Tate p. FR Pompidou c., + p.p.. INT Artsy, Artsy p.p., Google AP.
en Britannica c., Grove US c., Oxford DMCA c., Tate c., Tate p., Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković p. hu Artportal p., Artportal p.

Capitalist Realism 1963 Leben mit Pop. Eine Demonstration für den kapitalistischen Realismus
2013 Living with Pop: A Reproduction of Capitalist Realism +
Kuttner, Lueg, Polke, Richter (DE) happening, installation, painting consumerism, media, US pop art, Fluxus

INT Artsy.
en Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković

Mail Art,
Correspondence Art,
Postal Art
1962-63 Yam Festival
1970 New York Correspondance School
1971 Mail Art (at Paris Biennale)
1973 Omaha Flow Systems
1986 Decentralized Worldwide Mail-art Congress
1971 Poinsot
1972 Albright
1974 Fischer
1980 Carrión
Johnson (US), Filliou (FR), Spoerri (RO-CH), G Brecht (US), Vautier (FR), Anna Banana (CA), Cavellini (IT), Kozłowski, Partum (PL), Kocman (CZ) letter, postcard, drawing, object Fluxus

DK Lomholt. US U Buffalo, Gina Lotta. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Op Art 1965 The Responsive Eye
2007 Optic Nerve
1965 Albers
1970 Barrett
Vasarely (HU-FR), Riley (UK), Soto, Cruz-Diez (VE-FR), Agam (IL-FR), Le Parc (AR-FR), Morellet (FR), Anuszkiewicz (US) painting, sculpture kinetic art, Albers

FR Pompidou. US Met. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. no SNL.

Minimal Art,
1966 Primary Structures
1968 The Art of the Real
2014 Other Primary Structures
1965 Judd
1966 Morris
1967 Fried
1967 Aspen 5-6
1968 Battcock
1986 Foster
Judd, Morris, Stella, Flavin, Andre, T Smith, LeWitt, Martin (US) sculpture

US Guggenheim, NGA, Met, MiA. FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, MoMA, Oxford DA, Oxford US, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik. no SNL.

Process Art 1966 Eccentric Abstraction
1969 Anti-Illusionism: Procedures/Materials
1969 9 in a Warehouse
Morris, Serra (US), Hesse (DE-US), Le Va, Cohen, Nauman (US) sculpture minimal art, performance art

US Guggenheim. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal

Post-Minimalism 1966 Eccentric Abstraction
1969 Anti-Illusionism: Procedures/Materials
1969 When Attitudes Become Form
1968 Morris
1971 Pincus-Witten
1973 Krauss
1977 Pincus-Witten
Hesse (DE-US), Serra, Benglis, Le Va, LeWitt, Tuttle, Bochner, Sonnier, Vicconci, Nauman (US) sculpture, performance minimalism, process art, land art, conceptual art, body art, performance art

US Guggenheim. FR Pompidou. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove US, Oxford DA, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković.

Expanded Cinema 1965 New Cinema Festival I
1966 9 Evenings
1968 X-Screen
1974 Projected Images
1976 Festival of Expanded Cinema
1964 Mekas
1966 VanDerBeek
1970 Youngblood
VanDerBeek, Schneemann, Jacobs, Conrad, Sharits, Whitman (US), Snow (CA), B+W Hein (DE), Valie Export, Weibel, Scheugl (AT), Lemaître (FR), Keen, T Hill, L Rhodes (UK), Filmaktion: Le Grice, Raban, A Nicolson, Eatherley (UK), McCall (UK-US), Oiticica (BR), KwieKulik (PL) film, video, performance, installation, media environment experimental film, video art, computer art

en Monoskop, Tate. hu Artportal

Video Art 1966 9 Evenings
1968 The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age
1969 TV as a Creative Medium
1970 Information
1971 The Kitchen opens
1972-77 April Meetings
The Video Show
1970-74 Radical Software
1970 Youngblood
Paik (KO-DE-US), Vostell (DE), L Levine (IE-CA-US), Tambellini (IT-US), Nauman, Ant Farm, Sonnier, Acconci, Viola (US), Vasulkas (CZ-IS-US), Valie Export (AT), Rosenbach (DE), D Hall (UK), Dragans (SL), Bruszewski (PL), C Campbell (CA), Jonas, Benglis, G Hill (US), Iveković, Martinis (CR), Robakowski (PL), Mendieta (CU-US) video, installation, sculpture, performance, broadcast television, media, McLuhan

US VDB. UK Tate. AT MUMOK. INT Artsy, UbuWeb.
en Britannica, Grove, Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Larousse. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

New York Graphic Workshop 1964 founded
1966 New York Graphic Workshop Buenos Aires
2008 The New York Graphic Workshop, 1964-1970
1964 NYGW Manifesto Camnitzer (DE-UY-US), Porter (AR-US), Castillo (VE-US) printmaking

UK Tate.
en Tate.

Casablanca School 1966 Rabat show
1969 Exposition Manifeste
2016 Casablanca School of Fine Arts
1966-72 Souffles
2015 Powers
Belkahia, Melehi, Chabâa (MA) painting
Arte Povera 1967 Arte povera – IM Spazio
1968 Arte Povera
1968 Arte Povera+Azioni Povere
1967 Celant
1969 Celant
Anselmo, Boetti, Calzolari, Fabro, Gilardi, Mario Merz, Marisa Merz, Paolini, Pascali, Penone, Pistoletto, Prini, Zorio (IT), Kounellis (GR-IT) sculpture, installation, happening, performance conceptual art, Pasolini

FR Pompidou. UK Tate. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Guggenheim, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Larousse, Pompidou. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal.

Performance Art 1998 Out of Actions: Between Performance and the Object, 1949-1979 1979 Goldberg
1998 Schimmel
Acconci, Burden, Nauman, Oppenheim, Graham, Jonas, Monk, Piper, Carolee Schneemann, Ukeles, Laurie Anderson (US), Ono (JP-US), Horn, Beuys (DE), Hsieh (TW), Stelarc (CY-AU), Iveković, Abramović (YU), Mlčoch, Štembera (CZ), Kantor, Warpechowski, Borowski, Bereś (PL), Szentjóby (HU), Grigorescu (RO) performance happening, Fluxus, body art, actionism, contemp. dance

US MoMA, Guggenheim, Met, MFA Boston. UK Tate. FR FRAC Lorraine. INT Artsy.
en Britannica, Grove, Guggenheim, Oxford DA, Oxford Bib, Tate, Wikipedia. es CVAA. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Black Arts Movement 1968 Weusi at Stony Brook U
1970 AfriCOBRA 1: Ten in Search of a Nation
1971 Where We At: Black Women Artists
2010 AfriCOBRA
2015 The Freedom Principle
2018 Soul of a Nation
1970 Donaldson
2018 Morgan
Andrews, Bellow, Brown, Calloway, Donaldson, J Jarrell, W Jarrell, Jones, Jones-Hogu, Lawrence, Mallory, McCannon, Olugebefola, Riddle, Saar, collectives: Weusi, AfriCOBRA, Where We At (US) printmaking, collage, painting, quilt Neal 1968, liberation, equality

UK Tate c.a. INT Artsy.
en Smithsonian, Tate, Wikipedia.

Computer Art,
Computer Graphics
1968 Computer Graphic
1968 Cybernetic Serendipity
1968 Tendencies 4
1970 Software
1968-72 Bit International
1969ff PAGE
Laposky, Noll, Schwartz (US), Franke (AT), Alsleben, Nake, Nees, Mohr (DE), Zajec (IT), Molnar (HU-FR) screenprint, film

INT Artsy early c.a.
en Grove, Monoskop, Oxford DMCA, Wikipedia. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Land Art, Earth Art, Environmental Art, Site-Specific Art 1968 Earth Works
1969 Earth Art
1969 When Attitudes Become Form
2012 Ends of the Earth
1966 Smithson
1968 Smithson
1970-76 Avalanche
1979 Krauss
Smithson, Heizer, de Maria, Andre, Morris, Oppenheim (US), Christo & Jeanne Claude (BG/FR-US) conceptual art

US Guggenheim s./en., Met. UK Tate en. FR Pompidou l.. INT Artsy, Artsy s., Google AP.
en Monoskop, Oxford DA l., Tate l., Tate ea., Tate en., Tate s., Wikipedia. it Treccani l. cr Šuvaković en., Šuvaković ec., Šuvaković l. hu Artportal l., Artportal HU l., Artportal en. sl Pojmovnik ec., Pojmovnik l.

School of Things
1970 August 1970: Aspects of New Japanese Art
2015 Mono-ha - Premessa
1970 roundtable in Bijutsu techō 436
1970-71 Ufan
Ufan (KO-JP), Sekine, Yoshida, Honda, Narita, Koshimizu, Suga, Enokura, Haraguchi (JP) earthwork, sculpture

INT Artsy.
en Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia.

1970 Twenty-two Realists
1972 Documenta 5
1973 Photo-Realism 1973
1973 Hyperréalisme
1969 Meisel
1973 Brachot
1975 Battcock
Close, Estes, Flack, Bechtle, Cottingham, McLean, Eddy, Goings, Hanson, De Andrea (US), Salt (UK), Gertsch (CH) painting, sculpture photography

UK Tate h. FR Pompidou h. INT Artsy, Artsy h., Google AP, Google AP h.
en Grove p., Guggenheim p., Oxford DA h., Tate p., Tate h., Wikipedia, Wikipedia h. it Treccani h. cr Šuvaković h. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik p.

Conceptual Art 1969 January 1-31
1969 When Attitudes Become Form
1971 At Another Moment
1972 Documenta 5
1999 Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin 1950-1980s
1961 Flynt
1967 LeWitt
1969 Kosuth
1973 Lippard
1990 Buchloh
Kosuth, LeWitt (US), Art&Language (UK), Darboven (DE), Bochner, Weiner, D Huebler (US), Broodthaers (BE), Buren (FR), Graham (US), Haacke (DE-US), Piper, Ruscha (US), Darboven (DE), Gorgona (CR), OHO (SL), KÔD, Đorđević (SR), Erdély, Szentjóby (HU), Borowski, Kozłowski (PL), Koller, Filko (SK), Kabakov, Komar & Melamid, Collective Actions (RU) sculpture, printmaking, performance, painting readymade, land art

US Guggenheim, Met, MiA. UK Tate. FR Pompidou. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Britannica, Grove, Grove US, Met, MoMA, Monoskop, Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Stanford, Tate, Wikipedia. it Treccani. fr Larousse. es Akal, Butin. cr Šuvaković, Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Institutional Critique 1971 Guggenheim cancels Haacke's show
1971 Guggenheim censores Buren's work
1971 Buren
1977 Haacke
1990 Buchloh
Haacke (DE-US), Broodthaers (BE), Buren (FR), Asher, Rosler, Guerrilla Girls, Fraser (US), Wodiczko (PL-US) sculpture, installation, performance conceptual art, Foucault

INT Artsy.
en Grove, Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. sl Pojmovnik.

Systems Art 1970 Software 1967 Haacke
1968 Burnham
1968 Burnham
1970 Software
Haacke (DE-US), L Levine (IE-CA-US), Flavin, Andre, Morris (US), CAyC group (AR) installation, sculpture Bertalanffy 1968, cybernetics

en Monoskop, Tate, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković.

Feminist Art 1969 Women Artists in Revolution protest
1971 26 Women Artists
1972 Womanhouse
1973 c. 7,500
1975 Magna Feminismus: Kunst und Kreativität
2007WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution
1971 Nochlin
1971-73 West-East Bag newsletter
1972-77 Feminist Art Journal
1976 Lippard
Bourgeois (FR-US), Hesse (DE-US), Kusama (JP), Schneemann, Chicago (US), Schapiro (CA-US), Mendieta (CU-US), Ringgold, Kruger, Rosler, Sherman, Holzer, Benglis, Guerrilla Girls (US), Valie Export (AT), Abakanowicz, Partum (PL), Iveković (YU) sculpture, painting, performance, installation

INT Artsy.
en Tate, Walker, Wikipedia. cr Šuvaković. sl Pojmovnik.

Arabic Letterism
1947 Omar's show in Washington DC
1971- One Dimension shows
1997 Letter, Word, Art
1949 Omar
1971 Al Said
2006 Porter
Omar (SY-IQ-US), Al Said (IQ-FR), Hamoudi (IQ), Waqialla (SD-UK), Adnan (LB-US), Akyavaş (TR), Tanavoli (IR-IT-US), Zenderoudi (IR-FR), el-Said (IQ), Moustafa (EG-UK), Massoudy (IQ-FR), Ahuja (IN-UK), Qotbi (MA-FR), Koraichi (DZ-FR), group: One Dimension (IQ) painting, drawing, printmaking, craft calligraphy

en Tate.

Nsukka Group 1997 The Poetics of Line Okeke, Aniakor, O Udechukwu (NG), Anatsui (GH-NG), Adenaike (NG) painting, printmaking, sculpture uli, nsibidi, li calligraphy

en Tate.

Sots Art 1972 Melamid & Komar's Sots Art series
2007 Sots Art
1988 Groys Bulatov (RU), Komar & Melamid, Kosolapov, Sokov (RU-US), Nest group, Bruskin (RU) painting, sculpture socialist realism, pop art

en Oxford DA, Tate. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal

Graffiti Art 1972 City College show
1983 Post-Graffiti
1975 Martinez
1982 Foster
Basquiat, Haring, Rammellzee, McGee (US), Banksy (UK) mural, painting, drawing

UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Grove, Grove US, Oxford DA, Tate. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

Papunya Tula 1972 cooperative formed
1981 Australian Perspecta
1985 The Face of the Centre: Papunya Tula Paintings 1971–1984
2000 Papunya Tula: Genesis and Genius
Possum, Kaapa, Stockman, Uta Uta, Anatjari, Leura, Tolson (AU) painting, mural dreaming

AU Papunya Tula Artists, NGA Canberra, NMA Canberra + +, AG NSW Sydney, NGV Melbourne, Flinders U, Australian M Sydney, Knights, Wilkersons.

New Topographics 1975 New Topographics 1975 Jenkins Adams, Baltz, Gohlke, Nixon, Shore (US), Bechers (DE) photography man-altered landscape

INT Artsy.
en Grove, Grove US.

1975 Five Korean Artists, Five Kinds of White
1975 École de Seoul
2014 Overcoming the Modern
1980 Yil Chong-hyun, Chang-sup, Sang-hwa, Ufan, Whan-ki, Young-woo, Seo-bo (KO) painting

en Tate.

Laboratoire Agit'Art 1974 group established
1977 Tenq project space starts
2004 Harney
2014 Deliss
Samb, El Sy, Sèye, Traoré (SN) performance, installation, photography, film, painting, sculpture performance art, critique of Négritude

en Tate.

Resistance Art 1977 A New Day
1982 Culture and Resistance Symposium & Art for Social Development
2011 Impressions from South Africa
1986 To All Organizations and Cultural Workers
1989 Williamson
Mnyele, Tladi (ZA-BW), Martins, Magadlela, Clarke, Catherine, Rakgoathe, Muafangejo, Williamson, Kentridge, Bester (ZA), group: Medu Art Ensemble (BW-ZA) printmaking, painting Black Consciousness Movement, anti-apartheid

ZA Ifa Lethu.
en Tate.

Pictures Generation 1977 Pictures
2009 Pictures Generation
1979 Crimp
1980 Owens, (2)
Sherman, Levine, Prince, Kruger (US), Goldstein (CA-US) photography, film, video, performance, painting mass culture, appropriation, performance art, Barthes 1967

INT Artsy.
en Met, Tate.

Vancouver School of Photo-conceptualism 2005 Intertidal
2015 Traces That Resemble Us
2018 Modigliani Wallace (UK-CA), Wall, Graham, Lum, Douglas, Arden (CA) photography, installation conceptual art, cinema

en Wikipedia.

Neoism 1979 The Brain in the Mail
1980 APT '80
1979 Cantsin
1984-95 SMILE
1984 Cantsin
1987 Cantsin
Ackerman (US), Zack (US-CA), Kantor (HU-CA), Tolson (US), Bonbon (CA), Zealot (DE), Horobin, Home (UK) Cramer (DE-NL), Cantsin, Eliot, Blissett (int) performance, printmaking, prank, film mail art, Fluxus, counterculture, plagiarism

en Monoskop, Wikipedia.

Sound Art,
Sound Installation
1980 Für Augen und Ohren
1987 Ars Electronica
1996 Sonambiente
1996– Singuhr
2012 Sounding the Body Electric
2012 Sound Art: Sound as a Medium of Art
1975 Grayson
1985 Wishart
1990 Lander & Lexier
Lucier, Neuhaus, Amacher, Leitner (AT), DeMarinis, B Fontana (US), R Julius, Kubisch (DE), Collins (US) installation, sculpture, performance Russolo, Satie, Cage, Murray-Schafer, Eno

INT Artsy.
en Monoskop, Oxford DA, Tate. cr Šuvaković. sl Pojmovnik.

Stars Group,
1979 The Stars Exhibition AI Weiwei, HUANG Rui, LI Shuang, MA Desheng, WANG Keping (CN) painting, sculpture, drawing

INT Artsy.
en Tate.

Minjung Art,
People's Art
1980 Reality and Utterance
1988 Min Joong Art
1994 Fifteen Years of Minjung Art
Yoon, Song-dam, Chul-Soo, Bong-Chun, Hyeonsil gwa Bareon group (KO) printmaking, drawing anti-capitalism

en Tate.

Neue Wilden,
Figuration libre,
Heftige Malerei
1980 Venice Biennial
1982 Zeitgeist
1982 documenta 7
Baselitz, Penck, Immendorff, Kiefer, Lüpertz (DE), Schnabel (US), Le Brun (UK), Combas, Blanchard, Boisrond, de Rosa (FR) painting expr.

FR Pompidou f.l.. US Guggenheim, Met. AR MNBA. INT Artsy, Artsy n.f., Google AP.
en Oxford DA, Oxford DMCA, Tate, Tate n.w., Wikipedia, Wikipedia f.l. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković, Šuvaković. hu Artportal, Artportal. no SNL.

Transavanguardia 1979 Le Stanze 1979 Oliva
1980 Oliva
Chia, Clemente, Cucchi, Paladino (IT) painting neo-expr.

FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en Tate. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. no SNL.

New British Sculpture 1981 Objects and Sculpture Cox, Cragg, Flanagan, Gormley, Deacon, Houshiary, Kapoor, Wilding, Woodrow (UK) sculpture

UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Oxford DA, Tate. cr Šuvaković.

Düsseldorf School of Photography Bechers, Ruff, Gursky, Höfer, Hütte, Struth (DE) photography Neue Sachlichkeit, new topogr.

UK Tate. US Met. INT Artsy.
en Met, Tate.

Neue Slowenische Kunst 1984 NSK established Irwin, Laibach, New Collectivism (SL) performance, sculpture retro-avant-garde

en Tate. cr Šuvaković. sl Pojmovnik.

Postcolonial Art 1984 'Primitivism' in 20th Century Art [15]
1989 Magiciens de la terre
2014 Magiciens de la terre. Retour sur une exposition légendaire
Durham, Hammons (US), Ofili (UK-TT), Orozco (MX-FR-US), Walker (US) sculpture, performance, installation Fanon 1961, Said 1978: Orientalism

UK Tate.
en Tate.

British Black Arts Movement 1984 Into the Open
1987 The Image Employed
1989 The Other Story
Araeen, Bailey, Black Audio Film Collective, Boyce, Chambers, Dedi, Forrester, Himid, C Johnson, Kapo, Palmer, K Piper, Rodney, Sealy, M Smith, Sulter (UK) painting, sculpture, photography Stuart Hall

en Tate.

Xiamen Dada 1983 Cultural Palace
1986 Burning Event
1986 Huang HUANG Yongping, LIN Jiahua, JIAO Yaoming, YU Xiaogang, XU Chengdou (CN) assemblage, painting, sculpture dada, Chan Buddhism

en ECCC, Tate.

Rational Painting,
Lixing huihua
1986 Gao WANG Guangyi, SHU Qun, REN Jian, LIU Yan, ZHANG Peili, GENG Jianyi, WANG Qiang (CN) painting

en Tate.

85 New Wave,
bawu meishu xinchao
1985 shows in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Beijing, Shanghai, Yunnan, Shenzhen, Shanxi 1986 Gao
2011 Gao
painting rational painting, xiamen dada

INT Artsy.
en ECCC, Tate.

1986 Endgame 1996 Foster
2014 Brandt
Halley, Bickerton, Goldstein, Welling, Koons (US), Lavier (FR) painting, assemblage, sculpture abstraction, appropriation art, Baudrillard 1981: simulation

FR Pompidou s., + n.. INT Artsy, Artsy n.c.
en Guggenheim n.c., Oxford DA, Tate. cr Šuvaković, Šuvaković n.c., Šuvaković s.

Young British Artists (YBA) 1988 Freeze
1995 Brilliant!
1997 Sensation
1992 Corris
1999 Stallabrass
Hirst, Lucas, Fairhurst, Landy, Emin, Dean (UK) sculpture, installation

INT Artsy, Google AP.
en Grove, Oxford DA, Tate. cr Šuvaković.

Cynical Realism 1992 Li YUE Minjun, FANG Lijun, ZHANG Xiaogang, WANG Jinsong, YANG Shaobin, SONG Yonghong (CN) painting socialist realism, political pop

INT Artsy.
en ECCC, Tate. cr Šuvaković.

Political Pop 1992 Li WANG Guangyi, YU Youhan, WANG Ziwei, FENG Mengbo, ZHANG Peili, WEI Guangqing, QIU Zhijie (CN) painting 85 new wave, pop art

INT Artsy.
en ECCC.

Relational Art,
Relational Aesthetics
1993 Backstage
1996 Traffic
2002 Touch
2008 theanyspacewhatever
1998 Bourriaud
2004 Bishop
Parreno, Huyghe (FR), Gillick (UK-US), Tiravanija (TH-US), Beecroft (IT-US), Cattelan (IT), Höller (BE), Gordon (UK) performance, installation, sculpture

FR Pompidou. INT Artsy.
en [ Grove], Tate. cr Šuvaković.

New Genre Public Art 1993 Culture in Action 1995 Lacy
2002 Kwon
Lacy, Dion (US), Bruguera (CU-US)

UK Tate.
en Tate.

Abject Art 1993 Abject Art 1994 October
1996 Foster
Sherman, Kelley, McCarthy, Bourgeois, Schneemann, Gober, K Smith (US), Chadwick, Gilbert&George, Lucas, Chapman bros (UK) sculpture, performance, installation Kristeva 1980, Bataille, feminist art

UK Tate. INT Artsy.
en Tate, Wikipedia.

Archival Art,
Archival Aesthetics
2004 Foster Gonzalez-Torres (CU-US), Tiravanija (TH-US), Gillick (UK-US), Hirschhorn (CH-FR), Orozco (MX-FR-US), Gordon (UK), Huyghe, Parreno, Gonzalez-Foerster (FR), Green, Dion, Durant (US), Dean (UK) installation, performance
Tactical Media 1993 Next 5 Minutes 1992 N5M Zapbook
1994 CAE
Critical Art Ensemble, The Yes Men, Electronic Disturbance Theater, ®TMark (US), Bureau of Inverse Technology, Ubermorgen (int), Raqs Media Collective (IN), Garcia (NL-UK) performance, software, installation situationists, de Certeau 1980: strategy vs tactics

en Tate.

Net Art,
Internet Art
1997 documenta X
1998 Beyond Interface
2000 Digital Is Not Analog
1996 Blank
1999 ReadMe!
Jodi (BE/NL), Ćosić (SL), Bunting & (UK/int), Shulgin, Lialina (RU), Bookchin (US), (IT) software Nettime

US Turbulence. INT Artsy.
en Grove, Guggenheim, Tate. it Treccani. cr Šuvaković. sl Pojmovnik.

Afrofuturism 2013 The Shadows Took Shape
2015 Unveiling Visions
1994 Dery
1998 Eshun
Akomfrah (GH-UK), Kia Henda (AO), Otolith Group (UK), Mutu (KE-US), De Middel (ES-UK) mythology, race, technology

INT Artsy.
en Tate.

Software Art 2002 Readme
2002 CODeDOC
2003 Ars Electronica: Code
2006 Goriunova
2008 Mansoux & de Valk
Mansoux (FR-NL), I/O/D, Mongrel, McLean, Ward, Yuill (UK), Levin, Napier, Radical Software Group (US), (IT), Moddr, Netochka Nezvanova (int) software net art, game art

en Monoskop, Tate.

Game Art 1998 Synreal: The Unreal Modification
2001 Game Show
2003 Games: Computer Games by Artists
2002 Holmes Jodi (BE/NL), Mongrel (UK), Bookchin (US), Eastwood (SR), Diosi (SK-CZ), Molleindustria (IT), J Oliver (NZ-DE), Jahrmann (AT) software, installation
Bio Art 2000 Ars Electronica: Next Sex Kac (US), Stelarc (CY-AU), Critical Art Ensemble (US), Jeremijenko (AU-US), SymbioticA (AU), Quinn (UK), De Menezes (PT), Dewey-Hagborg (US) genetics

en Grove.

Post-Internet Art 2011 Grouped Show
2011 The Greater Cloud
2014 Art Post-Internet
2016 The Present in Drag
2008 Olson
2010 Vierkant
2011 Pool
2011 McGugh
2014 Kholeif
Laric (AT-DE), Domanović (SR-SL-AT-DE), Novitskova (EE-NL), Rafman (CA), Si-Qin (DE), Arcangel, Olson, Cortright, Vierkant (US) sculpture, digital print, software, video surf clubs, VVORK, DIS, new aesthetic

INT Artsy.
en Monoskop, Wikipedia.

Decolonial Aesthetics 2009- SAVVY Contemporary
2012-2018 BE.BOP
2011 manifesto
2013 Decolonial aestheSis
Ehlers, Lasch, Povinelli, Wilson installation, performance, sculpture, video, intervention


This list extends the table above to include terms that are not widely used. Some may be added later.[8]


  1. Schapiro (1953) argued that "style is an essential object of investigation [to the historian of art]" (287) and defined it as "the constant form--and sometimes the constant elements, qualities, and ex­pression--in the art of an individual or a group" (287), while "the description of a style refers to three aspects of art: form elements or motives, form relationships, and qualities (including an all-over quality which we may call the 'expression'). [...] Technique, subject matter, and material may be characteristic of certain groups of works and will sometimes be included in definitions; but more often these features are not so peculiar to the art of a period as the formal and qualitative ones" (289). Kubler (1967), on the other hand, criticised the definition of style as constant form: "The idea of style is best adapted to static situation, in crosscut or synchronous section. It is an idea unsuited to duration." More recently, Elsner (2003) summarised the bias of style in art history as follows: "The key assumption is that what matters about a work of art and what stylistic analysis may reveal is its origin and its moment of creation. Style rarely has any truck with the afterlife of objects, their messy history in the real world as they are bashed about, adapted, reused, and altered." For other aspects of the art historical debate on style, see Wölfflin (1950), Gombrich (1968), Goodman (1975), Alpers (1979), and Kubler (1979).
  2. Elkins 1998.
  3. Some collection catalogues combine it with or imply in the notion of movement. The Tate's collection can be navigated by the category Style or '-ism' , Met by Art Movement / Style, the collection aggregator Artsy by Style and Movement, while Pompidou has entitled the field Mouvement, Guggenheim Movements, and NGA and Hermitage stick with Styles.
  4. This applies not only to museums, but also to collection aggregators such as Artsy, Google Art Project and Artwiki.
  5. While the narrative text allows the fine distinctions between, say, Dadaist and Surrealist works by Max Ernst to be explained using art historical tropes, the database subordinates this tradition to the logic of normalised data. It assumes a binary relationship between a work by Ernst and the category "Dada", and between a work by Ernst and the category "Surrealism". It can be linked to both, but there is no place in the structure for conditionals. Here, styles are simply tags, and narrative text is secondary to the database structure. Similarly, if Marcel Duchamp can be treated in an essay as an early Conceptualist, the database will resist the introduction of the category early Conceptualism, as this would be unsystematic, unless a more nuanced categorisation is introduced for other included styles as well.
  6. Non-Western movements that have recently received belated recognition through retrospective exhibitions include Jikken Kobo (2009), Resistance Art (2011), Tansaekhwa (2014), Mono-ha (2015), Casablanca School (2016) and Khartoum School (2016).
  7. In recent decades, many isms were subjected to major reexaminations through retrospective exhibitions which acknowledged the legacy of women and non-Caucasian artists and extended the geographic radius beyond the West. Examples include Futurism & Futurisms (1986), Out of Actions: Between Performance and the Object, 1949-1979 (reassessing performance art, happening and process art, 1998), Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin 1950-1980s (1999), Fluxus East (2007), Seductive Subversion: Women Pop Artists, 1958–1968 (2010), Other Primary Structures (reassessing Minimalism, 2014), Storm Women (reassessing Expressionism, 2015), International Pop (2015), World Goes Pop (2015). Another phenomenon are reprises, restagings and returns to style-defining exhibitions such as Second Spring Exhibition of Obmokhu at Tretyakov Gallery (defining Constructivism, opened 2006), Living with Pop: A Reproduction of Capitalist Realism (2013) and Magiciens de la terre (2014).
  8. The list can be further extended to include more recent concepts created by artists to describe their practice: Arte de Conducta ("Behavior art", Bruguera), Arte Útil ("Useful art", "Art as a tool", Bruguera), Tools (Superflex, 2003), Connected Aesthetics (, 2004), Critical Engineering (Oliver, Savičić, Vasiliev, 2011), etc.


  • Akal Diccionario Akal de Arte del Siglo XX, ed. Gerard Durozoi, trans. Flavia Puppo, Madrid: Akal, 1997; 2007, Google (preview). Trans. of Dictionnaire de l'art moderne et contemporain, Paris: Hazan, 1992; 1993. (Spanish)
  • Artportal Artportal: "Fogalmi szócikkek", HTML. (Hungarian)
  • Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, subscription access. (English)
  • Grove Oxford Art Online, ed. Jane Turner, et al., Oxford University Press, 1998ff, subscription access, HTML (partial). (English)
  • Grove US The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists, ed. Ann Lee Morgan, Oxford University Press, 2007, xiv+537 pp, Google (preview). (English)
  • Guggenheim Guggenheim Collection Online: "Movements", HTML. (English)
  • Hartmann, Das große Kunstlexikon, ed. Peter W. Hartmann, 2003ff, HTML. (German)
  • Larousse. Dictionnaire de la peinture, Larousse, 2003, HTML. (French)
  • Oxford DMCA Ian Chilvers, John Glaves-Smith, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, Oxford University Press, 2009, Google (preview); online ed., subscription access. (English)
  • Oxford DA The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists, 4th ed., ed. Ian Chilvers, Oxford University Press, 2009, xxv+694 pp, subscription access; 5th ed., OUP, 2015, subscription access. (English)
  • Pojmovnik Pojmovnik slovenske umetnosti 1945-2005, HTML. (Slovenian)
  • SNL Store Norsk Lexikon, 2009ff, HTML. (Norwegian)
  • SSM, SSM2 Amy Dempsey, Art in the Modern Era: A Guide to Styles, Schools & Movements, 1860 to the Present, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002, TOC; UK ed. as Styles, Schools And Movements: The Essential Encyclopaedic Guide to Modern Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 2002; new ed., exp., 2010, 312 pp, TOC. [20] (English)
  • Šuvaković Miško Šuvaković, Pojmovnik suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb: Horetzky, 2005, IA. (Croatian)
  • Tate Tate: "Glossary of Art Terms", HTML. (English)
  • Treccani Treccani Enciclopedie on line, Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana (Treccani), HTML. (Italian)

More reference works.


On the concept of style in art history
  • Heinrich Wölfflin, "Introduction", in Wölffin, Principles of Art History [1915], trans. M.D. Hottinger, New York: Dover, 1950, pp 1-17, IA.
  • Meyer Schapiro, "Style", in Anthropology Today: An Encyclopedic Inventory, ed. A.L. Kroeber, University of Chicago Press, 1953, pp 287-312, PDF; repr. in Aesthetics Today, ed. Morris H. Philipson, Cleveland: World, 1961.
  • James S. Ackerman, "A Theory of Style", The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 20:3 (Spring 1962), pp 227-237, PDF.
  • George Kubler, "Style and the Representation of Historical Time", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 138 (Feb 1967), pp 849-855, PDF.
  • Ernst Gombrich, "Style", in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 15, ed. D. L. Sills, New York, 1968, pp 352-361; repr. in The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology, 2nd ed., ed. Donald Preziosi, 2009, pp 129-140, PDF.
  • Nelson Goodman, "The Status of Style", Critical Inquiry 1:4 (Jun 1975), pp 799-811, PDF.
  • Svetlana Alpers, "Style is What You Make It", in The Concept of Style, eds. Leonard B. Meyer and Berel Lang, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979, pp 95-117, PDF; rev. in The Concept of Style, rev. & exp.ed., ed. Berel Lang, Cornell University Press, 1987, pp 137-162, PDF.
  • George Kubler, "Toward a Reductive Theory of Visual Style", in The Concept of Style, eds. Leonard B. Meyer and Berel Lang, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979, pp 119-127; rev. in The Concept of Style, rev. & exp.ed., ed. Berel Lang, Cornell University Press, 1987, pp 163-173, PDF.
  • James Elkins, "Style", in Grove Art Online, 1998. [21]
  • Jas Elsner, "Style", in Critical Terms for Art History, 2nd ed., eds. Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff, University of Chicago Press, 2003, pp 98-109, PDF, PDF, ARG.

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