net art

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venice, june 8, 2001.

at the opening of the slovenian pavillion, several members of the Old Boys Network congratulated Vuk Cosic and handed over a huge bouquet of flowers to him. amongst Tadej Pogacar and, Vuk Cosic is the representative of the republic of slovenia in the solvenian pavillion at the 49th biennale of art in venice. following is the speech which has been delivered by OBN at this occasion:

"On behalf of the Old Boys Network, an international autonomous cyberfeminist networking organisation, we offer this acknowledgement to Vuk Cosic. We congratulate Vuk on his success on bringing to the venice biennale, which definitely is one of the pinnacles in his career. additionally he has curated the first temporary autonomous pavillion ever at a biennale. we honour Vuk in using his powerful position not just to represent slovenia and bring his personal position to this prestigious international event, but also to show the positions of his colleagues. we wish him well in his future responsibilities to the net art community.“

Photo: Herbert Hossmann, CC BY-NC-SA.
A bouquet of flowers given to Vuk Cosic by the Old Boys Network during the 2001 Venice Biennale. Exhibited as part of the exhibition Written in Stone: A Net.Art Archaeology at the National Museum of Contemporary Art, Oslo, 2003. Photo: Cornelia Sollfrank.

Living resource on net art, internet art, net-based art, net-based installations, web art, web-based art.

Artists, writers, organisations, events[edit]


  • per se, conference, Trieste, 1996.
  • Hybrid Workspace, part of documenta X exhibition, Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, 21 Jun-28 Sep 1997.
  • Art and Money Online, exhibition, Tate Modern, London, 6 Mar-3 Jun 2001. Curated by Julian Stallabrass.
  • Absolute One, Slovenian Pavilion, Venice Biennale, 6 Jun-30 Sep 2001.
  • Art.Bit Collection, exhibition and symposia, InterCommunication Center, Tokyo, 21 Jun-11 Aug 2002. Curated by Masaki Fujihata and Kouichirou Eto. [1]
  • Tele-Internet, Ars Electronica, Linz, 2010. Curated by Aram Bartholl.


  • Art for Networks, eds. Hannah Firth and Simon Pope, Cardiff: Chapter, 2002, 44 pp.
  • Net art 0.1: desmontajes, Badajoz: Consejería de Cultura y Turismo/Junta de Extremadura, 2009, 154 pp. Exh. held at MEIAC, Museo Extremeño e Iberoamericano de Arte Contemporáneo, Badajoz, 21 Nov-28 Feb 2009. (Spanish)/(English)
  • Powered by Ljudmila, eds. Alenka Gregorič and Keiko Suzuki, Ljubljana: Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana / City Art Gallery Ljubljana, 2011, 96 pp. [14] [15] [16] (Slovenian)/(English)
  • Virtual Normality. Der weibliche Blick im Zeitalter des Internets, ed. Alfred Weidinger, VfmK, 2018, 208 pp. [17] (German)/(English)
  • Art in the Age of the Internet, 1989 to Today, ed. Eva Respini, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018, 316 pp. Exh. held at ICA Boston, 7 Feb-20 May 2018. Review: Federici (CAA).
  • The Art Happens Here: Net Art Anthology, eds. Michael Connor, Aria Dean, and Dragan Espenschied, forew. Zachary Kaplan, intro. Michael Connor, New York: Rhizome, 2019, 444 pp. Essays by manuel arturo abreu, Josephine Bosma, Megan Driscoll, Ceci Moss, Lila Pagola, Paul Soulellis, Elvia Wilk. TOC. [18] [19]. Reviews: Quaranta (Camera Austria), Weisburg (Brooklyn Rail).

Online exhibitions and databases[edit]

  •, a premiere web site for net art. From 1996-2016, commissioned over 220 original net, web and hybrid art works and hosted over 20 real-time, multi-location performances.
  • Net Art Anthology. Presented by Rhizome, 2016-2019. Retelling the history of Net Art from the 1980s through the present day by restaging and contextualizing one key net art project per week. [20]
  • netart-Datenbank, est. 2000, active through c.2005. Team: Nina Kahnwald, Anna Kohler, Tilman Linden, Thomas Noesler, Sakrowski.
  • Pixel Plunder©, online exhibition on notions of authorship and copyright, curated by Michael Alstad and Michelle Kasprzak, 2001. [23] [24]
  • Gallery 9, Walker Art Center's online exhibition space. Between 1997 and 2003, under the direction of Steve Dietz, Gallery 9 presented the work of more than 100 artists.
  •, online projects commissioned by SFMOMA. Launched 2000. Created by Benjamin Weil with Joseph Rosa. [25] (archived)
  • Artport. Whitney Museum's portal to Internet art and an online gallery space for commissions of net art and new media art. Originally launched in 2001, Artport provides access to original art works commissioned specifically for artport by the Whitney; documentation of net art and new media art exhibitions at the Whitney; and new media art in the Museum's collection. Created and curated by Christiane Paul. Made an official part of the Whitney Museum collection in 2015. [26]
  • Net.Specific, an online exhibition space for net art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Roskilde, Denmark. Launched Oct 2012.
  • Histories of Internet Art: Fictions and Factions, an online-only exhibition of the early history of Internet art; produced by students of digital art at the University of Colorado's Art and Art History Department, in conjunction with the Alt-X Online Network, ATLAS and blurr.
  •, documentation of selected internet-based artworks by recording users in front of their screens as they interact with the work.
  •, an online-gallery listing and directory. The archive contains current and past exhibitions with dates, links, and press releases.
  • Why Not Sneeze, eds. Michael Gibbs and Brigitte van der Sande, 1996-1998.
  • Sunrise/Sunset, series of Internet art projects commissioned by Whitney Museum, since 2009
  • Digital Canon, 20 works from the Netherlands, 1960-2000, launched 2019. Compiled by LIMA.
  • We=Link: Sideways, A Chronus Art Center (CAC) exhibition, Shanghai, 21 Nov 2020-23 Mar 2021. Curated by Ga Zhang. [29]
  • Garage Digital, online program for born-digital artworks and research projects created in collaboration with Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow, 2019-. [31]
  • 2020 Do Not Link, group exhibition, Upstream Gallery, 12-28 Jun 2020. Curated by Dirk Paesmans and Bob Bicknell-Knight.
  • openAR, platform for AR art, featuring online exhibitions. Founded 2021 by Sakrowski and Jeremy Bailey.


  • Tilman Baumgärtel, Materialien zur Netzkunst, Nürnberg: Verlag für moderne Kunst, 1999, 179 pp. [32] (German)
    • Tīkla māksla, trans. Ilva Skulte, Riga: Petergailis, 2001, 168 pp. (Latvian)
    • võrgukunsti materjalid, trans. Medea Jerser, Tallinn: Eesti Kunstiakad, 2006, 367 pp. (Estonian)
  • Institut für moderne Kunst Nürnberg, Verena Kuni (eds.), netz.kunst. Jahrbuch des Institutes für Moderne Kunst Nürnberg '98/'99, Nürnberg: Verlag für moderne Kunst, 1999, 272 pp. [33] (German)
  • Margarete Jahrmann (ed.), Art_Server: Stargate to Netculture. Texte und Positionen zu Netz-Kunst, -Kontext und -Kultur / Positions on structural aspects of net art, content and culture launching Art_Servers, Vienna: Triton, and Linz: O.K. Centrum für Gegenwartskunst, 2000, 76 pp. With contributions by Konrad Becker, Andy Best, Eric Davis, Thomas Feuerstein, Marina Grzinic, Katharina Gsöllpointner, Margarete Jahrmann, Gabi Kepplinger/Thomas Lehner, Kristin Lucas, Martin Sturm, and James Wallbank. TOC. Symposium. [34] (German)/(English)
  • Hans-Jörg Bullinger, Thomas Renner, Anette Weisbecker (eds.), Net Art Guide, Stuttgart: Fraunhofer IRB, 2000, 288 pp. Excerpt. Publisher. [35] (English)/(German)
  • Julian Stallabrass, Internet Art: The Online Clash Between Culture and Commerce, London: Tate Publishing, 2003, 168 pp. Reviews: Stimson (NLR), Gere (Art Book).
  • NTNTNT, ed. Jason Brown, Valencia, CA: California Institute of the Arts, School of Art, 2003, 339 pp, IA.
  • Domenico Quaranta, Net art 1994-1998. La vicenda di Ada'web, Milan: Vita e Pensiero, 2004, 192 pp. [37] [38] (Italian)
  • Inclusiva-net, 3 vols., Madrid: Medialab Prado, 2007-2009. Proceedings. (English)/(Spanish)
  • Anne Laforet, Le net art au musée. Stratégies de conservation des œuvres en ligne, Paris: Questions théoriques, 2011, 180 pp. Excerpt. Based on 2009 dissertation. [45] [46] (French)
  • Juan Martín Prada, Prácticas artísticas e internet en la época de las redes sociales, Madrid: Akal, 2012, 248 pp; 2nd ed., 2015, 271 pp. (Spanish)
  • Phoebe Adler, Leanne Hayman, Arrate Hidalgo, Dana Saey, Phoebe Stubbs, Nick Warner (eds.), Art and the Internet, London: Black Dog, 2013, 240 pp. TOC. [47]
  • Marina Zerbarini, et al., Radiografía del Net Art latino: vitalidad creativa en riesgo de extinción, Buenos Aires: Dunken, 2014. [48] [49] [50] (Spanish)
  • Melanie Bühler (ed.), No Internet, No Art: A Lunch Bytes Anthology, Eindhoven: Onomatopee, 2015, 351+[63] pp; 2nd ed., 2018. Publisher, Editor. [51]. Reviews: Kay (AQNB), Roestenburg (INC).

Journal issues[edit]

  • kritische berichte 26(1): "Netzkunst", eds. Christoph Danelzik-Brüggemann, Annette Dorgerloh, Brigitte Schoch-Joswig, and Michael Scholz-Hänsel, 1998. TOC, [55]. (German)
  • Brumaria 6: " Prácticas estéticas y políticas en red", eds. Laura Baigorri and Lourdes Cilleruelo, Madrid, Spring 2006. TOC. TOC. (Spanish)
  • terminal 101: "Net art, technologie ou création?", Paris: Harmattan, May 2008, 176 pp. [56] (French)
  • WJ-SPOTS 1: 15 ans de création artistique sur internet / 15 years of web creation, ed. Anne Roquigny, 2011, 132 pp. [57] (French)/(English)
  • WJ-SPOTS 2: Les artistes s’emparent du réseau / Artists take over the network, ed. Anne Roquigny, 2011, 132 pp. [58] (French)/(English)
  • frieze d/e 14: "Missing Links: '90s Berlin Net Art", May 2014. Focuses on the 1990s Net art scene in Berlin. [59] [60] (German)/(English)

Book chapters, articles, theses, talks, discussions[edit]

  • Julian Stallabrass, "The Aesthetics of Net.Art", Qui Parle 14:1, Fall/Winter 2003, pp 49-72. A plenary lecture given to the American Society for Aesthetics, Annual Meeting, San Francisco, Oct 2003, (talk).
  • Steve Dietz, "äda’web", in Bits & Pieces Put Together to Present a Semblance of a Whole: Walker Art Center Collections, eds. Joan Rothfuss and Elizabeth Carpenter, Minneapolis, MN: Walker Art Center, 2005.
  • Steve Dietz, "Curating Net Art", in New Media in the White Cube and Beyond: Curatorial Models for Digital Art, ed. Christiane Paul, University of California Press, 2008. [66]
  • "Net Art", in Wolf Lieser, Digital Art, Potsdam: Ullmann, 2009; repr. as The World of Digital Art, Potsdam: Ullmann, 2010.
  • Tina Mariane Krogh Madsen, Keeping Ephemerality Alive: Preserving the Dynamic Materiality of Net Art, Aarhus: University of Aarhus, 2010. Master's thesis. [67]


Museum collections[edit]

Artist b. Title, Link Year Coll. Acq. Coll. no. Coll. URL Medium Dept / Type / Tags Info
Douglas Davis US The World's First Collaborative Sentence 1994- Whitney 1995 95.253 [69] Website (HTML) New Media [70] [71] [72] [73] [74]
Jean-Baptiste Michel US I WISH I could be exactly what you’re looking for 2013 Whitney 2014 2014.96 [75] Twitter API, LCD screen, spray painted mat board, and glass New Media [76]
Siebren Versteeg US New York Double Hung 2008 Whitney 2017 2017.241 [77] Digital collage, output from Internet-connected computer program, with two touch screens New Media [78]
Daniela Alina Plewe DE Muser's Service 1994 ZKM [79] Waterbed, electric heating, pillow, red LED clock module, computer (PC Client), operating system (Linux Ubuntu), custom software with internet access, modified keyboard, computer (PC Server), operating system (Linux Ubuntu), custom software with internet access, TFT monitor, text-to-speech converter (Infovox 700), speaker, amplifier, projector installation, computer-based, Net Art, Computer-based installation [80] [81] [82]
Walter van der Cruijsen, Jill Scott NL, AU Salon Digital 1995 ZKM [83] Custom-made table, three TFT monitors with speakers, glass pane, turnable ring with infrared keyboard and track ball, computer (PC), operating system (Windows) computer-based, Net Art, Net-based sculpture
Markus Huemer AT The Rules Are No Game 1997 ZKM [84] Two computers (PC, operating system: Linux, custom software with internet access), video camera, projector, floor plates with screenprint installation, computer-based, Net Art, Computer-based installation
Cornelia Sollfrank DE Net Art Generator 1999 ZKM [85] interactive net-based installation; computer workstation (table, chair, computer) and wooden box with server, projection screen; technical equipment: computer (server): PC with graphics and two network cards, operating system: Linux, software: custom software with Internet access, computer (workstation): PC, software: Internet browser; other technical devices: panel and electronics of a TFT monitor, projector, color printer (optional) computer-based, Net-based sculpture [86]
Shane Cooper US Remote Control 1999 ZKM [87] computer (Silicon Graphics O2, operating system: IRIX, custom software), keyboard, mouse, audio effects unit, computer screen, TV screen, custom-made remote control system, TV cabinet, coffee table, sofa, floor lamp, pedestal computer-based, installation, video, Net-based installation, Computer-based installation [88] [89] [90]
David Link DE Poetry Machine 2001 ZKM [91] interactive, net-based installation; room with projection screen, technological equipment: computer: 3 PCs, operating system: Linux, software: Icustom software with Internet access, other devices: modified keyboard on stand, custom electronics, ultrasonic distance sensor, network distributor, 1 plasma monitor, projector, amplifier, 2 passive speakers, mixer installation, computer-based, Net Art, Net-based installation, Computer-based installation [92] [93]
Transmute Collective AU Intimate Transactions 2005 ZKM [94] Two supporting structures for one person each (aluminum, steel, plastic), four computers (Power Max G5), operating system (OSX), custom software, four computers (PC), operating system (Windows), custom software, laptop, operating system (Windows), custom software with internet access, two sound cards (MOTU 828 Mk2), two AD/DA converters (Behringer ADA8000), two custom-made electronic units, two MIDI controllers (Midiman 2x2), four body sensors, two video cameras, two RGB mixers, 16 speakers (active), two subwoofers, two projectors, two projection screens, seven TFT monitors, pedestal, monitor, CF card player, speakers (active) video, computer-based, installation, Sound installation, Video installation, Net-based installation, Computer-based installation
Marc Lee CH Breaking the News 2007 ZKM [95] computer (PC), operating system (Windows XP), custom software with internet access, 3 or 4 projectors, 3 or 4 speakers (active) installation, computer-based, Net-based installation, Computer-based installation, Video installation [96]
David Bowen US tele-present water 2011 ZKM [97] Aluminium, wooden sticks, nylon threads, 17 servo motors (Futaba S3004), computer (Macmini, operating system: Mac OSX, software: Max/MSP); wave from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data buoy station 51003 installation, computer-based, Kinetic installation, Computer-based installation, Net-based installation [98]
Mark Amerika US Crapshoot 2013- 2014 ZKM [99] website; languages: HTML, CSS, JavaScript computer-based, Net Art [100] [101] [102]
Martine Neddam NL My DesktopLife 2014 ZKM [103] net-based artwork; website, languages: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python computer-based, Net Art [104]
Rafaël Rozendaal NL Neo Geo City 2014 ZKM [105] website, languages: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python computer-based, Net Art [106] [107]
Alex Wenger, Max-Gerd Retzlaff DE Spuren 2015 ZKM [108] 1 Computer, 2 Microcontroller, Webserver, 1 Monitor, Software, 1 Sockel computer-based, Net-based installation [109]
Leena Krohn FI Sphinx or Robot 1997 Kiasma 1997 N-1997-86 [110] Media Art, Online Art
Juha van Ingen FI Web-Safe 1999- 2000 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-32 [111] Text, Silent Media Art, Online Art [112] [113] [114]
Jarkko Räsänen FI Ordered Dance 2016 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-44 [115] Media Art, Online Art [116]
Tuomo Rainio FI Untitled (Gravitational waves) 2016 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-45 [117] Text Media Art, Online Art [118]
Pink Twins FI Infinity 2016 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-48 [119] Media Art, Online Art [120]
Angelo Plessas GR Homo Cybersphericus 2017 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-50 [121] Text, website Media Art, Online Art [122]
Jenna Sutela FI Gut-Machine Poetry 2017 Kiasma 2016 N-2016-796 [123] Text, website Media Art, Online Art [124]
Reija Meriläinen FI Survivor 2017 Kiasma 2017 N-2017-205 [125] Media Art [126]
Robertas Narkus LT Prospect Revenge 2019 Kiasma 2019 N-2019-63 [127] [128]
John F. Simon Jr. US Unfolding Object 2002 Guggenheim 2002 2002.16 [129] Interactive networked code (Java applet with server database and servlets) Internet Art [130] [131]
Mark Napier US net.flag 2002 Guggenheim 2002 2002.17 [132] Interactive networked code (Java applet with server database) Internet Art [133] [134]
Shu Lea Cheang TW Brandon 1998- 1999 Guggenheim 2005 2005.44 [135] Interactive networked code (html, Java, Javascript and server database) Internet Art [136] [137]
Lynn Hershman Leeson US Agent Ruby 1999- 2002 SFMOMA 2008 2008.230 [138] web project digital media [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145]
Julia Scher US Predictive Engineering2 1998 SFMOMA 2008 2008.231 [146] web project digital media [147]
Harrell Fletcher and Miranda July, Harrell Fletcher, Miranda July, Yuri Ono US Learning to Love You More 2002- 2009 SFMOMA 2010 2010.45 [148] web project ( and archive digital media
Sandra Gamarra PE LiMac Museum Shop 2005 Tate 2009 T15217 [149] Software, networked, internet, colour, laptop; plywood, paint, oil paintings on canvas, coat hangers, t-shirts, mugs, canvas bags, wooden yo-yos, mouse mats, pin badges, printed papers and other materials
Marc Lee CH TV Bot 2.0 2010 HEK 2012 S0001 [150] 16:9 flat screen, speaker boxes, computer, Internet browser with flash plug-in, Internet connection, router, cable Internet Artwork [151] [152] [153]
Christoph Wachter, Mathias Jud CH New Nations 2009- 2011 HEK 2012 S0003 [154] Router: TL-WR841ND (with handmade aluminum box), operating system OpenWRT Attitude Adjustment 12.09, wooden box, folded leaflet, book Internet Community Project
UBERMORGEN AT Sound of Ebay 2008/ 2009 HEK 2012 S0004 [155] EBay user data; computer with Internet connection; possibly a screen with a projector Internet Artwork
Jodi NL, BE div. (property) 2013 HEK 2013 S0013 [156] Source code: HTML, CSS, Javascript; computer, other output devices (projector, screen) Internet Artwork
Beat Brogle, Philippe Zimmermann CH onewordmovie 2003/ 2018 HEK 2016 S0014 [157] Program code, source code (HTML 5), database, emulator Internet Artwork
Monica Studer, Christoph van den Berg CH filter: four letter words 1997- 1998 HEK 2016 S0015 [158] For the original version: 726 HTML files and 726 GIF files; for the 2016 version: 726 HTML files, 726 GIF files and 1 CSS file Screen: 640 x 480 px – 1920 x 1080 px; desktop computer, e.g., Netscape 2.0 / Windows 98; HTML 5 or CCS 3 browser, e.g., Firefox 47.0 / Windows XP Internet Artwork
Monica Studer, Christoph van den Berg CH filter: mille miglia 1997- 1998 HEK 2016 S0016 [159] For the original version: 5 HTML files; for the 2008 version: 5 HTML files; for the 2016 version: 2 HTML files (1 x iframe, 1 x openWindow): Screen: 780 x 280 px; desktop computer, e.g., Netscape 4 / Windows 98; HTML 5 or CCS 3 browser, e.g., Firefox 47.0 / Windows XP Internet Artwork
Monica Studer, Christoph van den Berg CH filter: mixed double 1997- 1998 HEK 2016 S0017 [160] For the original version: 726 HTML files and 726 GIF files; for the 2016 version: 726 HTML files, 726 GIF files and 1 CSS file Screen: 640 x 480 px – 1920 x 1080 px; desktop computer, e.g., Netscape 2.0 / Windows 98; HTML 5 or CCS 3 browser, e.g., Firefox 47.0 / Windows XP Internet Artwork
Monica Studer, Christoph van den Berg CH travelogue 2005 HEK 2017 S0038 [161] Web game: Flash-File and HTML pages for Online and Offline use; film of the game: 736 x 506 px, 33’, MP4, AV Web Game [162]
Monica Studer, Christoph van den Berg CH Hotel Vue des Alpes 2000- HEK 2017 S0044 [163] Pentium III, 3-D programs, website with room-reservation system, HTML, PHP, compatible with flash and SQL, vda player Internet Artwork
Maia Gusberti, Michael Aschauer, Nik Thoenen, Sepp Deinhofer CH LOGICALAND V0.1 2002 HEK 2016 S0018 [164] Web application with Java applet (and HTML/CSS) as front end, and a PHP/MySQL as backend. Current version: 0.11. Used – last tested software: PHP Version 4.3.6, MYSQL 3.23.39 Web Game
!Mediengruppe Bitnik CH Download Finished 2006 HEK 2016 S0020 [165] 3 films in PAL MPEG-2, 720 x 576 px format. Website consists of 1420 static pages and 1409 films in HTML5. Web server (Nginx, Apache) with PHP5 enabled; server space: ca. 140 GB Web Archive, Digital Video
knowbotic research DE, CH minds of concern (New York version) 2002 HEK 2016 S0024 [166] Server: apache, mysql, python script, python cgi scripts; Client: HTMIL, flash (gnash) plugin; Internet Artwork, Interactive Installation
knowbotic research DE, CH macghillie_just a void 2008- 2012 HEK 2016 S0025 [167] Wordpress Blog, Camouflage-Anzug Blog, Urban Intervention
Birgit Kempker DE, CH Sphinx 2004- HEK 2017 S0035 [168] Internet Artwork [169]
Marc Lee CH TV Bot 1.0 2004/ 2005 HEK 2017 S0036 [170] Original (2004): Data stream from the Internet, 16:9 flat screen, speakers, computer, Internet browser with flash plugin, Internet connection including router, cable. Videos (2005): flash, MP4 Internet Artwork [171] [172] [173] [174]
John F. Simon, Jr. US Every Icon 1997 HEK 2017 S0037 [175] Software, Java Applet Internet Artwork [176]
LAN CH TraceNoizer – Disinformation On Demand 2001 HEK 2017 S0047 [177] Internet Artwork
Gilles Aubry, Stéphane Montavon DE, CH Cairo Talking Heads 2006/ 2017 HEK 2017 S0061 [178] software, website, audio Blog, Internet Artwork
Martine Neddam NL Mouchette 1996- Stedelijk & MOTI Breda 2016 [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185]

See also the works commissioned by Tate (2000-2011), SFMOMA (2000-) and Whitney (2001-), and the works in Rhizome ArtBase, Net Art Anthology and Digital Canon.