Concrete poetry

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Concrete, visual and optical poetry

Poets, authors, collectives, initiatives[edit]

See also Women in concrete poetry.


Iliazd (ed.), Poésie de mots inconnus, 1949, Log, PDF.
Jeff Berner (ed.), Astronauts of Inner Space: An International Collection of Avant-garde Activity, 1966, Log, PDF.
Emmett Williams (ed.), An Anthology of Concrete Poetry, 1967, Log, PDF.
Mary Ellen Solt (ed.), Concrete Poetry: A World View, 1968/1970, PDF, HTML.
Eugen Gomringer (ed.), konkrete poesie: deutschsprachige autoren, 1972, Log, PDF.
Alan Riddell (ed.), Typewriter Art, 1975, Log, PDF.

See also exhibition catalogues.

  • Poesie visive, ed. & intro. Lamberto Pignotti, Bologna: Sampietro, 1965. Works by Alfredo Giuliani, Adriano Spatola, Luigi Tola, and Guido Ziveri. Special issue of Il Dissenso 8, part of Antologia della poesia visiva published as Il Dissenso 5-8. (Italian)
  • Concrete Poetry: An International Anthology, ed. Stephen Bann, London: London Magazine Editions, 1967. [2] (English)
  • An Anthology of Concrete Poetry, ed. Emmett Williams, New York: Something Else Press, and Stuttgart: hansjörg mayer, 1967; repr., New York: Primary Information, 2013, 342 pp.
  • Experimentální poezie, eds. Josef Hiršal and Bohumila Grögerová, intro. Miloš Jůzl, Prague: Odeon, 1967, 265 pp. [3] (Czech)
  • Bientot, ed. Jean-François Bory, 1967. (French)
    • Once Again, trans. Lee Hildreth, New York: New Directions, 1968, 124 pp. [4] (English)
  • Artes Hipánicas/Hispanic Arts: A Magazine of Literature, Music and Visual Arts / Revista de Literatura Musica y Artes Visuales, 1(3-4): "A World Look at Concrete Poetry", ed. Mary Ellen Solt, Spring 1968; new ed. as Concrete Poetry: A World View, Bloomington: Indian University Press, 1970, 311 pp, IA, HTML. Review: Coelho (LBR, PT). [5] [6] (English)
  • Experiments in Prose, ed. Eugene Wildman, Chicago: Swallow Press, 1969, x+351 pp. TOC. [7]
  • Exempla: documenti di poesia concreta e visuale / Documents of Concrete and Visual Poetry, ed. Maurizio Nannucci, Florence: Exempla, 1970, 36 [leaves], 20.5 x 11 cm. [8] (Italian)/(English)
  • rot 41: "konkrete poesie international II", eds. Max Bense and Elisabeth Walther, Stuttgart, 1970.
  • This Book is a Movie: An Exhibition of Language Art & Visual Poetry, eds. Jerry G. Bowles and Tony Russell, New York: Dell Publishing, 1971, 320 pp. [9] (English)
  • Computer Poems, ed. Richard W. Bailey, Drummond Island, MI: Potagannissing Press, 1973, 53 pp. (English)
  • Antologia da poesia concreta em Portugal, eds. José-Alberto Marques and E.M. de Melo e Castro, Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 1973, 163 pp. Introduction. (Portuguese)
  • Italian Visual Poetry, 1912-1972, ed. Luigi Ballerini, Finch College Museum / Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1973.
  • Typewriter Art, ed. & intro. Alan Riddell, London: London Magazine Editions, 1975, 157 pp. (English)
  • Anthologie visuele poëzie. 133 dichters uit 25 landen / Visual Poetry Anthology: 133 Poets from 25 Countries, ed. G.J. de Rook, The Hague: Bert Bakker, 1975, [222] pp. (Dutch)/(English)
  • Illuminations, ed. Richard Kostelanetz, Woodinville, WA: Laughing Bear, 1977, 48 pp. Excerpt. (English)
  • International Anthology of Concrete Poetry, ed. John Jessop, Toronto: Missing Link Press & Poetry Toronto Books, 1978. (English)
  • Antologija konkretne in vizualne poezije, ed. Denis Poniž, Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1978, 229 pp. [11] (Slovenian)
  • Text–Sound Texts, ed. Richard Kostelanetz, New York: William Morrow, 1980, 441 pp. (English)
  • 4 Major Visual Poets: Ruth Jacoby, Richard Kostelanetz, Tom Ockerse, Michael Joseph Phillips, ed. Michael Joseph Phillips, Indianapolis: Free University Press, 1980. (English)
  • Poesia concreta, eds. Iumna Maria Simon, Vinicius Dantas and Abril Educacao, São Paulo, 1982, 111 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Die Wiener Gruppe. Achleitner, Artmann, Bayer, Rühm, Wiener, ed. Gerhard Rühm, Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1985. (German)
  • Poemografias: perspectivas da poesia visual portuguesa, eds. Fernando Aguiar and Silvestre Pestana, Lisbon: Ulmeira, 1985, 274 pp. Hatherly's essay. [12] [13] (Portuguese)
  • WortBILD: visuelle Poesie in der DDR, eds. Guillermo Deisler and Jörg Kowalski, Halle and Leipzig: Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 1990, 163 pp. Anthology of East German visual poetry. (German)
  • Verbi Visi Voco: A Performance of Poetry, eds. Bob Cobbing and Bill Griffiths with Jennifer Pike, intro. Eric Mottram, London: Writers Forum, 1992, 310 pp. An anthology of visual and sound poetry. List of contributors. [14] (English)
  • Vrh kostek: česká experimentální poezie [1968], eds. Josef Hiršal and Bohumila Grögerová, Prague: Torst, 1993, 408 pp. Anthology of Czech visual poetry; originally prepared for publication in 1968. TOC. Publisher. [15] (Czech)
  • Il suono e le parole: otto artisti europei sonori visuali, ed. Alfonso Malinconico, Naples: Marcus, 2006, 168 pp. Review: Colusso. [16] (Italian)
  • An Anthology of Concrete Poetry (in braille), ed. Rachel Simkover, Berlin: Motto Books, 2013. [17]
  • Marvin Sackner, Ruth Sackner, The Art of Typewriting, pref. John Maeda, forew. Steven Heller, London: Thames & Hudson, 2015, 351 pp. A selection of works from the Sackner Archive of Visual and Concrete Poetry by 200+ artists. Publisher. [24] (English)
  • The New Concrete: Visual Poetry in the 21st Century, eds. Victoria Bean and Chris McCabe, London: Hayward Publishing, 2015, 240 pp. Review: Poynor (Creative Rev). [25] [26] [27] (English)
  • Women in Concrete Poetry: 1959-1979, eds. Alex Balgiu and Mónica de la Torre, New York: Primary Information, Sep 2020, 480 pp. Publisher.
  • Concrete Poetry: A 21st-century Anthology, ed. Nancy Perloff, London: Reaktion Books, Nov 2021, 224 pp. Publisher.


Magazines, periodicals[edit]

  • Noigandres, 5 numbers, eds. Haroldo de Campos, Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, and Reinaldo Azeredo, São Paulo: Grupo Noigandres, 1952-1962. Reprint. [28]. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • spirale, 9 numbers, eds. Eugen Gomringer (1-9), Dieter Roth (1-4), Marcel Wyss (2-9), and Karl Gerstner (5-9), Bern: Spirale Press, 1953-1964. Book, Review. [29], [30]. (German)
  • De Tafelronde, eds. Andries Dhoeve, Peter Dietrich, Rudo Durant, and Henri Chopin, Antwerp, 1953-1981. [31] [32] (Dutch)
  • material: Journal for Concrete Poetry and Fine Art, 5 numbers, ed. Daniel Spoerri, Darmstadt & Paris, 1957-1959. [33]. [34], [35], [36].
  • Cinquième Saison, 16 numbers, ed. Henri Chopin, 1958-1963.
  • Fuck You: A Magazine of the Arts, 9 numbers, ed. Ed Sanders, New York, 1962-1965. (English)
  • Invenção: revista de arte de vanguardia, 5 numbers, eds. Décio Pignatari, Pedro Xisto, and Edgard Braga, São Paulo, 1962-1967. [37]. [38]. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Poor.Old.Tired.Horse., 25 numbers, ed. Ian Hamilton Finlay, 1962-1968. Published an increasing amount of visual poetry from issue 5 onwards. See also issue of Roland dedicated to magazine (2009). (English)
  • Diagonal Cero, 28 numbers, ed. Edgardo Antonio Vigo, et al., La Plata/Argentina, 1962-1968. [39]. (Spanish)
  • Marrahwannah Quarterly, ed. d.a. levy, Cleveland, 1964-1967. (English)
  • Poems for a Thaler, 4 numbers, eds. Vagn Steen and Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, 1964-1965. (Danish)
  • Revue Ou, 28 numbers, ed. Henri Chopin, 1964-1974; new ed., Alga Marghen, 2007, 4 CDs+book. Multimedia magazine of visual poetry and sound poetry. [40]
  • Futura, 26 numbers, ed. Hansjörg Mayer, Stuttgart, 1965-1968. [41]
  • Approches, 4 numbers, eds. Jean-François Bory and Julien Blaine, Paris: Approches, 1965-1969. [42] (French)
  • Buddhist Third Class Junkmail Oracle, ed. d.a. levy, Cleveland, 1967-1969. (English)
  • Stereo Headphones: An Occasional Magazine of the New Poetries, 10 numbers, ed. Nicholas Zurbrugg, Kersey near Ipswich, UK: Nicholas Zurbrugg, 1969-1982. Minimalist, sound, visual and concrete poetry. [43] [44] (English)
  • Signal: internacionalna revija za signalistička istraživanja, 9+21 numbers, ed. Miroljub Todorović, et al., Belgrade, 1970-1973 & 1995-2004. No. 1, 4-5, 8-9. WP. (Serbo-Croatian),(Hungarian),(English)
  • Kaldron, ed. Karl Kempton, 1976-1990, since 1997 online. Issue 11 (1980), Issue 15 (1982), Issue 19 (1985). [45]
  • Konkret, 1 issue, ed. Eric Amann, Toronto, 1979. (English)
  • UNI/vers(;), 35 numbers, ed. Guillermo Deisler, Halle, 1987-1995. (English)
  • Essex Magazine, 4 numbers, eds. Scott Pound and William R. Howe, 1997-1998. Features the resurgence of visual poetry in Toronto and Buffalo in the 1990s. (English)
Between Poetry and Painting, 1965, Log, PDF, IA, UbuWeb.

Exhibition catalogues[edit]

  • Konkrete Texte. Studium Generale, Stuttgart: Technische Hochschule Stuttgart, 1959, [14] pp. DeCampos A ; Pignatari D ; DeCampos H ; Azeredo R ; Ruhm G ; Heissenbuttel H ; Gomringer E ; Shannon C ; Bense M. [46] (German)
  • Konkrete Dichtung aus Brasilien. Noigandres Gruppe: Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campas, Ronaldo Azeredo, José Lino Grünewald, forew. Helmut Heißenbüttel, Freiburg: Lateinamerikanischer Kreis an der Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, 1963, [16] pp. Exh. held 14-19 Jan 1963. (German)
  • First International Exhibition of Concrete, Kinetic and Phonetic Poetry, ed. Mike Weaver, Cambridge, UK, 1964. Exh. held in the Rushmore Rooms, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, UK, 28 Nov-5 Dec 1964. [47] (English)
  • Between Poetry and Painting, ed. Jasia Reichardt, London: Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1965, 81 pp. Exh. held 22 Oct-27 Nov 1965. (English)
  • Obraz a písmo, eds. Zdeněk Felix and Jiří Kolář, Kolín: Museum v Kolíňe, 1966, [25]+[20] pp. Jiří Kolář; Josef Hiršal; Jiří Valoch; Bohumila Grögerová; Ladislav Novák; Zdeněk Barborka; Ladislav Nebeský; Věra Jirousová; Emil Juliš; Vladimír Burda; Jindřich Procházka. (Czech)
  • Poesía concreta internacional, ed. Ida Rodríguez Prampolini, México: Galería Universitaria Aristos / Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1966, [22] pp. (Spanish)
  • Epok anno '66: licht en beweging, konkrete poëzie, Velp: Epok, 1966, 7 pp. Exh. held 26 Feb-27 Mar 1966. (Dutch)
  • Expozice experimentální hudby. Konkrétní hudba. Fónická poezie, Brno: Studio Českého rozhlasu, 1969. (Czech)
  • Konkrete Poesie deutschsprachiger Autoren, ed. Hansjörg Schmitthenner, Munich: Goethe-Institut, 1969, 48 pp.
    • Poesia concreta de autores de lingua alema / Konkrete Poesie deutschsprachiger Autoren, Munich: Goethe-Institut, 1973, 64 pp. (German)/(Portuguese)
  • Concrete Poetry: An Exhibition in Four Parts, Vancouver: UBC Fine Arts Gallery, 1969, [10+25] leaves. Exh. held 13 Apr-5 May 1969. With essays by Michael Rhodes, Edwin Varney, Ian Hamilton Finlay & Stephen Scobie, Ian Wallace, Kurt Von Meier (on Michael Morris) and Michael Morris (on Ray Johnson). [48]
  • Grenzgebiete der bildenden Kunst. Konkrete Poesie, Bild, Text, Textbilder, Computerkunst, Musikalische Graphik, ed. Arnulf M. Wynen, Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 1972, 136+[10] pp. Reinhard Döhl's essay. [51] (German)
  • Taalbeeld-beeldtaal. Nederlandse visuele dichters, Amsterdam: Kunsthistorisch Instituut, 1975. Exh. held 14 Nov-6 Dec 1975. (Dutch)
  • Czeska i słowacka poezja konkretna, ed. Barbara Baworowska, Wroclaw: Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu, 1976, [23] pp. (Polish)
  • Arti visive. Poesia visiva. / Visual Poetry by Women, an International Exhibition in Venice, ed. Mirella Bentivoglio, intro. Franca Zoccoli, Rome: Studio d'Arte Contemporanea, 1976, [27] cards+[3] leaves, 22 x 16 cm. Introduction, Artist list. A gathering of artists’ cards documenting visual and concrete poetry all created by women from Italy, England, Germany, United States, Czechoslovakia, Portugal, Canada, and Japan. Organized by Bentivoglio, this multiyear exhibit traveled form city to city throughout Italy (Milan, Savona, Rome, Turin) starting in 1972. Participating artists: Annalisa Alloatti, Mirella Bentivoglio, Irma Blank, Paul Claire, Lia Drei, Ulrike Eberle, Anna Esposito, Amelia Etlinger, Gisela Frankenberg, Ilse Garnier, Bohumila Grögerová, Ana Hatherly, Annalies Klophaus, Liliana Landi, Giulia Niccolai, Anna Oberto, Anezia Pacheco e Chaves, Marguerite Pinney, Betty Radin, Giovanna Sandri, Mira Schendel, Mary Ellen Solt, Chima Sunada, Salette Tavares, Biljana Tomić, Patrizia Vicinelli. [52] (Italian),(English)
  • Materializzazione del linguaggio, ed. Mirella Bentivoglio, Biennale di Venezia 1978-Arti visive e architettura, 1978, 55 pp. Exh. held 20 Sep-15 Oct 1978 featuring works by 86 women artists. Text by Mirella Bentivoglio, biographies of the exhibiting artists including Sonia Delaunay, Natalia Goncharova, Irma Blank, Mirella Bentivoglio, Lia Dreai, Chiara Diamantini, Elisabetta Gut, Ketty La Rocca, Lucia Marcucci, Simona Weller, Carla Vasio, Giulia Niccolai, Paola Levi Montalcini, Maria Lai, Tomaso Binga. [53] {{it}
  • Vom Aussehen der Wörter: visuelle Poesie/Notationen, eds. Michael Erlhoff and Bernhard Holeczek, Hannover: Das Kunstmuseum, 1980, 215 pp. Exh. held at Kunstmuseum Hannover mit Sammlung Sprengel, 14 Nov-7 Dec 1980. (German)
  • auf ein Wort! Aspekte visueller Poesie und visueller Musik, ed. Dietrich Mahlow, Heidelberg: Braus, 1987, 176 pp. Exh. held at four venues in Mainz. (German)
  • Visuelle Poesie, eds. Guillermo Deisler and Karla Sachse, Club der Kulturschaffenden "Johannes R. Becher", 1988, [30] pp. (German)
  • Text als Figur: visuelle Poesie von der Antike bis zur Moderne, eds. Jeremy Adler and Ulrich Ernst, Weinheim: Acta Humaniora, 1990, 336 pp. Exh. held at Zeughaus der Herzog-August-Bibliothek, 1 Sep 1987-23 May 1988. (German)
  • Visuelle Poesie, eds. Karla Sachse and Guillermo Deisler, Gotha: Museen der Stadt Gotha, 1990, [34] pp. (German)
  • Konkrete Poesie. Innovation und Tradition, ed. Ulrich Engel, Wuppertal: Bergische Univ., 1991, 130 pp. Exh. held at Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, 14 May-7 Jun 1991. (German)
  • Poésure et peintrie: d'un art, l'autre, eds. Bernard Blistène and Véronique Legrand, Marseille: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1993, 655 pp. Exh. held at the Centre de la Vieille Charité, Marseille, 12 Feb-23 May 1993. [54] (French)
  • Buchstäblich wörtlich, wörtlich buchstäblich. Eine Sammlung konkreter und visueller Poesie der sechziger Jahre in der Nationalgalerie, Berlin, ed. Michael Glasmeier, Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, 1994, 281 pp. (German)
  • Báseň, obraz, gesto, zvuk: experimentální poezie 60. let, Prague: Památník národního písemnictví, 1997, 43+[51] pp. Texts by Josef Hiršal, Petr Kotyk, Josef Hlaváček, et al. Exh. held at Zimní refektář Strahovského kláštera, 10 Mar-2 Jun 1997. [55] (Czech)
  • Akce, slovo, pohyb, prostor. Experimenty v umění šedesátých let, ed. Vít Havránek, Prague: Galerie hl. města Prahy, 1999, 508 pp. TOC. [56] (Czech)
  • Concrete Poetry, Fluxus and Conceptual Art: A Book Friction, ed. Marc Goethals, Ghent: Witte Zaal, 2008, 100 pp. Introduction. [57] [58] (English)
  • From Concrete to Liquid to Spoken Worlds to the Word, Genève: Centre d'Art Contemporain Genève, 2017. Exh. held 31 May-31 Aug 2017. Review: Watson (Artforum).


  • Kathleen McCullough, Concrete Poetry: An Annotated International Bibliography, with an Index of Poets and Poems, Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing, 1989. (English)

Archives, resources[edit]

Recent exhibitions[edit]

Reception, art historical studies, theory[edit]

Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campos, Teoria da Poesia Concreta – Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960, 1965; 2nd ed., 1975, Log, PDF.
Josef Hiršal, Bohumila Grögerová (eds.), Slovo, písmo, akce, hlas. K estetice kultury technického věku, 1967, Log, PDF.
Bit International 5-6: "The Word Image", 1969, Log, PDF.
Dick Higgins, Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature, 1987, Log.


  • Eugen Gomringer, "vom vers zur konstellation", Augenblick 1:2, 1955. (German)
  • Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campos, Teoria da Poesia Concreta – Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960, 1965; 2nd ed., São Paulo: Duas Cidades, 1975. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Franz Mon, Zur Poesie der Fläche / Texte in den Zwischenräumen, St. Gallen: Galerie Press, 1966, 12 pp. [63] (German)
  • Josef Hiršal, Bohumila Grögerová (eds.), Slovo, písmo, akce, hlas. K estetice kultury technického věku, Prague: Československý spisovatel, 1967, 256 pp. (Czech)
  • Franz Mon, "An eine Säge denken", Akzente 15, 1968, pp 429-436. (German)
  • Bit International 5-6: "The Word Image: poésie concrète / Oslikovljena riječ: konkretna poezija", ed. Vera Horvat-Pintarić, Zagreb: Galerije grada Zagreba, 1969, 145 pp. Texts by Vera Horvat-Pintarić, Branimir Donat, Max Bense, Tomaž Brejc, Siegfried J. Schmidt, and Željko Bujas. (Serbo-Croatian)/(English),(French),(German)
  • David William Seaman, French Concrete Poetry: The Development of a Poetic Form from the Origins to the Present Day, Stanford University, 1970, xiv+522 pp. PhD dissertation. (English)
  • Text + Kritik 25: "Konkrete Poesie I", ed. H.L. Arnold, Munich, 1970. (German)
  • Text + Kritik 30: "Konkrete Poesie II", ed. H.L. Arnold, Munich, 1971. (German)
  • Klaus Peter Dencker, Text-Bilder: visuelle Poesie international: von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, Cologne: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1972, 190 pp. Review: Arnheim (Leonardo). (German)
  • Thomas Kopfermann (ed.), Theoretische Positionen zur Konkreten Poesie. Texte und Bibliographie, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1974. (German)
  • Harald Hartung, Experimentelle Literatur und konkrete Poesie, Göttingen, 1975. (German)
  • Dieter Kessler, Untersuchungen zur Konkreten Dichtung: Vorformen, Theorien, Texte, Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1976, 418 pp. (German)
  • Armando Zárate, Antes de la vanguardia: historia y morfología de la experimentación visual: de Teócrito a la poesía concreta, Buenos Aires: Rodolfo Alonso, 1976, 122 pp. (Spanish)
  • Wolfgang Max Faust, Bilder werden Worte: zum Verhältnis von bildender Kunst und Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert oder Vom Anfang der Kunst im Ende der Künste, Munich: Hanser, 1977, 268 pp. Based on PhD dissertation from TU, Berlin, 1976. (German)
  • Bob Cobbing, Peter Mayer, Concerning Concrete Poetry, London: Writers Forum, 1978, 85 pp; repr., London: Slimvolume, 2014. (English)
  • Thomas Kopfermann, Konkrete Poesie: Fundamentalpoetik und Textpraxis einer Neo-Avantgarde, Peter Lang, 1981, 335 pp. (German)
  • Poetics Today 3(3): "Poetics of the Avant-Garde: Concrete Poetry", Summer 1982. Section in special issue of journal. [64] (English)
  • Visible Language 20(1): "Pattern Poetry: A Symposium", ed. Dick Higgins, Jan 1986, 147 pp, PDFs. (English)
  • Willard Bohn, The Aesthetics of Visual Poetry, 1914-1928, Cambridge University Press, 1986; University of Chicago Press, 1993, x+228 pp.
  • Dick Higgins, Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature, SUNY Press, 1987, x+275 pp. (English)
  • Bob Cobbing, Changing Forms in English Visual Poetry: The Influence of Tools and Machines, London: Writers Forum, 1988, [16] pp. Lecture given at the international conference Visuelle Poesie im Historischen Wandel / Changing Forms of Visual Poetry held in the Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbuttel, 30 Aug-4 Sep 1987. (English)
  • Visible Language 23(1): "The Printed Poem and the Reader", ed. Richard Bradford, Jan 1989, 132 pp, PDFs. (English)
  • Víťazoslav Hronec, Jaroslav Supek (eds.), Nový život. Nové umenie, Novi Sad: Obzor, 1990. (Slovak)
  • Harvard Library Bulletin 3(2): "Material Poetry of the Renaissance/The Renaissance of Material Poetry", ed. Roland Greene, Summer 1992. Bibliography. [65] [66] (English)
  • John Byrum, Crag Hill (eds.), Core: A Symposium on Contemporary Visual Poetry, Mentor, OH: Generator Press, and Mill Valley, CA: Score, 1993, 156 pp. (English)
  • Dick Higgins, "Concrete Poetry", in The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, eds. Alex Preminger and T. V. F. Brogan, Princeton University Press, 1993, 233-234. (English)
  • Victoria Pineda, "Speaking about Genre: The Case of Concrete Poetry", New Literary History 26:2, 1995, pp 379-393. (English)
  • K. David Jackson, Eric Vos, Johanna Drucker (eds.), Experimental-Visual-Concrete. Avant-Garde Poetry Since the 1960s, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 448 pp. Includes "Experimental, Visual, and Concrete Poetry: A Note on Historical Context and Basic Concepts", pp 39-61. TOC. [67] (English)
  • Eugen Gomringer, Theorie der Konkreten Poesie. Texte und Manifeste 1954-1997. Gesamtwerk Band II, Vienna: Splitter, 1997. (German)
  • Text + Kritik: "Visuelle Poesie", ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold, 1997, 225 pp. [68] (German)
  • Willard Bohn, Modern Visual Poetry, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2001. [69] (English)
  • Willard Bohn, Reading Visual Poetry, Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010, 176 pp. (English)
  • Klaus Peter Dencker, Optische Poesie: Von den prähistorischen Schriftzeichen bis zu den digitalen Experimenten der Gegenwart, De Gruyter, 2011. [70] (German)
  • Richard Bradford, Graphic Poetics: Poetry as Visual Art, Bloomsbury, 2011. (English)
  • Johanna Drucker, "Concrete Poetry", in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 4th ed., ed. Roland Greene, Princeton University Press, 2012, pp 294-295. (English)
  • E. Berry, "Visual Poetry", in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 4th ed., ed. Roland Greene, Princeton University Press, 2012, pp 1522-1525. (English)
  • Aleksandra Kremer, "Poezja konkretna w trzech obszarach językowych" [Concrete Poetry in Three Languages], Przestrzenie Teorii 19, Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 2013, pp 95-114. (Polish)
  • Jamie Hilder, Designed Words for a Designed World: The International Concrete Poetry Movement, 1955-1971, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2016, 277 pp. Based on PhD dissertation, 2010. (English)
  • Luca Francesco Romani, Sound in Brazilian and German Concrete Poetry, Tübingen: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 2017, 269 pp. PhD dissertation. Focusses on sound in the concrete poetry of Grupo Noigandres and Stuttgarter Gruppe. (English)
  • die horen 271 & 272: "Das Wort beim Wort nehmen. Konkrete und andere Spielformen der Poesie 1 & 2", eds. Safiye Can and Jürgen Krätzer, Wallstein Verlag, 2018, 189 & 181 pp. [71] [72]

the West[edit]

East-Central Europe[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

See also magazine Psí víno.


See also magazines Kloaka and Enter.

  • Zora Rusinová, "Experimentálna poézia", in Slovník svetového a slovenského výtvarného umenia druhej polovice 20. storočia, Bratislava: Kruh súčasného výtvarného umenia, 1999, pp 75-79. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • Zora Rusinová, "Lettrizmus", in Slovník svetového a slovenského výtvarného umenia druhej polovice 20. storočia, Bratislava: Kruh súčasného výtvarného umenia, 1999. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • František Štraus, Štefan Moravčík, Princípy hry v slovenskej poézii, Martin: Matica slovenská, 2001. (Slovak)
  • Miloš Štofko, "Experimentálna poézia", in Štofko, Od abstrakcie po živé umenie. Slovník pojmov moderného a postmoderného umenia, Bratislava: Slovart, 2007, pp 59-62. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • Katarína Ihringová, "Experimentálna poézia a jej podoby v slovenskom vizuálnom umení", Slovenská literatúra 58:4, Bratislava: Slovenská akadémia vied, 2011, pp 317-330. [86] (Slovak)
  • Katarína Ihringová, Vzťah slova a obrazu v slovenskom vizuálnom umení, Trnava: Pergamen, 2012. (Slovak)
  • Bogumiła Suwara, Zuzana Husárová (eds.), V sieti strednej Európy: nielen o elektronickej literatúre, Bratislava: SAP & Ústav svetovej literatúry, 2012, 312 pp. (Slovak),(Czech)
  • Michal Rehúš, Jaroslav Šrank, "Nesystematický návod na použitie slovenskej experimentálnej poézie", in V sieti strednej Európy: nielen o elektronickej literatúre, eds. Bogumila Suwara and Zuzana Husárová, Bratislava: SAP a Ústav svetovej literatúry, 2012, pp 241-264. (Slovak)
  • Ha!art 42(2): "Czeska i słowacka literatura nowomedialna", Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2013. (Polish)
  • Michal Jareš, Veronika Ráczová, Ľubica Schmarcová, "Experimentálna línia", in Hľadanie súčasnosti. Slovenská literatúra začiatku 21. storočia, Bratislava: Literárne informačné centrum, 2014. [87] (Slovak)
  • Enter 24: "Kreatívny manuál pre slovenskú nekonvenčnú poéziu", ed. Michal Murin, Košice: Dive Buki, Dec 2015, 90 pp. [88] (Slovak)
  • Michal Murin, "Triangulačné body nekonvenčnej poézie na Slovensku", in Milan Adamčiak, Archív II (KOPO): konkrétna poézia 1964-1972, Košice: Dive Buki, 2016, pp 12-85. (Slovak)
  • Peter Zajac, "Optická poézia Milana Adamčiaka v kontexte slovenskej literatúry", in Milan Adamčiak, Archív II (KOPO): konkrétna poézia 1964-1972, Košice: Dive Buki, 2016, pp 294-326. (Slovak)
  • Zuzana Husárová, "Slovenská elektronická literatúra", World Literature Studies 3:8, 2016, pp 57-77. (Slovak)


  • Tadeusz Sławek, Między literami. Szkice o poezji konkretnej [Between Letters: Sketches on Concrete Poetry], Katowice: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, 1989. (Polish)
  • Piotr Rypson, Obraz slowa historia poezji wisualnej, Warsaw, 1989, 373 pp. (Polish)
  • Małgorzata Dawidek Gryglicka, Historia tekstu wizualnego. Polska po 1967 roku, Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2012, 752 pp. Review: Kearns (Enclave). (Polish)



  • Andrei Oisteanu, "The Romanian Avant-Garde And Visual Poetry", in Dada East? The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, eds. Adrian Notz and, Zurich: Cabaret Voltaire, and Bucharest:, 2007; repr. in Exquisite Corpse. A Journal of Letters and Life, n.d. (English)

East Germany[edit]

  • Liselotte Gimpel, "Concrete" Poetry from East and West Germany: The Language of Exemplarism and Experimentalism, Yale University Press, 1977, xvi+268 pp. Reviews: Butler (J Eur Stud), O'Swald (GDR Bulletin), Weimar (GDR Bulletin). (English)

Latin America[edit]

See also[edit]

Women in concrete poetry, Sound poetry, Conceptual writing, Artists' publishing, Typewriter art, Code poetry