James J. Gibson

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Gibson, 1972. Source.
Born January 27, 1904(1904-01-27)
McConnelsville, Ohio, United States
Died December 11, 1979(1979-12-11) (aged 75)
Ithaca, New York, United States
Web Wikipedia, Academia.edu, Aaaaarg, Open Library

James Jerome Gibson (1904-1979) is one of the most important psychologists of the 20th century, best known for his work on visual perception. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University and his first major work was The Perception of the Visual World (1950) in which he rejected behaviorism for a view based on his own experimental work. In his later works, including The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979), Gibson became more philosophical and criticized cognitivism in the same way he had attacked behaviorism before, arguing strongly in favor of direct perception and direct realism, as opposed to cognitivist indirect realism. He termed his new approach ‘ecological psychology’. Gibson’s legacy is increasingly influential on many contemporary movements in psychology, particularly those considered to be post-cognitivist.


The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, 1979, Log.


  • A Study of the Reproduction of Visually Perceived Forms, Princeton University, 1928.


  • The Perception of the Visual World, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1950.
    • Die Wahrnehmung der visuellen Welt, trans. Vera Schumann, Weinheim and Basel: Beltz, 1973, 356 pp. (German)
    • La percepción del mundo visual, trans. Enrique L. Revol, Buenos Aires: Infinito, 1974, 319 pp. Excerpt. (Spanish)
    • Shikaku wārudo no chikaku [視覚ワールドの知覚], trans. Tomomi Takezawa, Takashi Murakami and Atsuki Higashiyama, Tokyo: Shin'yōsha, 2011, 299 pp. (Japanese)
  • The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, 335 pp. [1] [2]
    • Våra sinnen som perceptuella system, trans. Lisen Eriksson, Stockholm: Beckman, 1969, 295 pp. (Swedish)
    • Die Sinne und der Prozess der Wahrnehmung, trans. Ivo Kohler, Bern: Hans Huber, 1973. (German)
    • Seitaigakuteki chikaku shisutemu: kansei o toraenaosu [ギブソン生態学的知覚システム: 感性をとらえなおす], Tokyo: Tōkyōdaigakushuppankai, 2011, 391 pp. (Japanese)
  • The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979; Psychology Press, 1986; 2015, 315 pp.
    • Wahrnehmung und Umwelt: der ökologische Ansatz in der visuellen Wahrnehmung, trans. Gerhard Lücke, Munich: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1982, 356 pp. (German)
    • Seitaigakuteki shikakuron [生態学的視覚論: ヒトの知覚世界を探る], trans. Takashi Kozaki, 1986, 360 pp. (Japanese)
    • Ekologicheskiy podchod k zritelnomu vospriyatiyu [Экологический подход к зрительному восприятию], trans. T.M. Sokolskoy, Moscow: Progress, 1988. (Russian)
    • Un approccio ecologico alla percezione visiva, trans. Riccardo Luccio, intro. Riccardo Luccio & P. Bozzi, Bologna: Il Mulino, 1999. (Italian)
    • Approche écologique de la perception visuelle, trans. & intro. Olivier Putois, afterw. Claude Romano, Bellevaux: Dehors, 2014, 519 pp. Afterword. (French)
  • Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays, eds. E. Reed and R. Jones, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982.
    • Chokusetsu chikaku ron no konkyo: Gibuson shinrigaku ronshū [直接知覚論の根拠 : ギブソン心理学論集], trans. Atsushi Sakai, Tokyo: Keisō Shobō, 2004, 418 pp. (Japanese)